Millet


Millet
/mi lay"/; for 2 also Fr. /mee le"/, n.
1. Francis Davis, 1846-1912, U.S. painter, illustrator, and journalist.
2. Jean François /zhahonn frddahonn swann"/, 1814-75, French painter.

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I
Any of various grasses (family Poaceae, or Gramineae), that produce small edible seeds used as forage crops and as food cereals.

Most millets range in height from 1 to 4 ft (0.3 to 1.3 m). Except for pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, or P. americanum), seeds remain enclosed in hulls after threshing. Cultivated in China since at least the 3rd millennium BC, millets are today an important food staple in much of Asia, Russia, and western Africa. High in carbohydrates, they are somewhat strong in taste and cannot be made into leavened bread, so they are consumed mainly in flatbreads and porridges or prepared and eaten much like rice. In the U.S. and western Europe they are used chiefly for pasture or to produce hay.
II
Turkish term referring to an autonomous religious community under the Ottoman Empire (с 1300–1923).

Each millet was responsible to the central government for obligations such as taxes and internal security and also had responsibility for social and administrative functions not provided by the state. Beginning in 1856, a series of secular legal reforms known as the Tanzimat ("Reorganization") eroded much of their administrative autonomy.

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plant
 any of various grasses, members of the Gramineae (Poaceae) family, producing small edible seeds used as forage crops and as food cereals. Millets, probably first cultivated in Asia or Africa more than 4,000 years ago, range in height from 1 to 4 feet (0.3 to 1.3 m), with the exception of pearl millet, which has stalks 5 to 10 feet (1.5 to 3 m) tall and about 1 inch (2.54 cm) thick. The heads may be spikes or racemes, in which the flowers are borne on stalks of about equal length along an elongated axis, or panicles, clusters of small florets. With the exception of pearl millet, seeds remain enclosed in hulls after threshing. Hulled seeds are usually creamy white.

      Millets are an important food staple in much of Asia, Russia, and western Africa. In the United States and western Europe they are used chiefly for pasture or to produce hay, although they were major grains in Europe during the Middle Ages. Pearl millet, or cattail millet, called bajra in India (species Pennisetum americanum), is suited to soils of low fertility and limited moisture and is a popular food crop in India and Africa. Proso—the common, or broomcorn, millet (Panicum miliaceum)—ripening within 60–80 days after sowing, is used in birdseed and chick-feed mixtures and as livestock feed in the United States and as a food in Asia and eastern Europe. Foxtail varieties (Setaria [Chaetochloa] italica) having small pointed seeds are grown for hay in North America and western Europe but are important as foods in China and other Asian countries. Finger millet, or koracan millet, also called raggee (Eleusine coracana), is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of Africa. Japanese millet (Echinochloa crus-galli variety frumentacea) is grown chiefly in Japan and the United States as a hay crop. Little millet (Panicum miliare) is chiefly a food crop of India. Browntop (Panicum ramosum) is grown in the southeastern United States for hay, pasture, and game-bird feed.

      The millets are high in carbohydrates, with protein content varying from 6 to 11 percent and fat varying from 1.5 to 5 percent. They are somewhat strong in taste and cannot be made into leavened bread. Instead, they are mainly consumed in flatbreads and porridges or prepared and eaten much like rice. About 30,000,000 metric tons of millet are produced annually, chiefly in India, China, Nigeria, and Russia.

▪ religious group
      (Turkish: “religious community,” or “people”), according to the Qurʾān, the religion professed by Abraham and other ancient prophets. In medieval Islāmic states, the word was applied to certain non-Muslim minorities, mainly Christians and Jews. In the heterogeneous Ottoman Empire (c. 1300–1923), a millet was an autonomous self-governing religious community, each organized under its own laws and headed by a religious leader, who was responsible to the central government for the fulfillment of millet responsibilities and duties, particularly those of paying taxes and maintaining internal security. In addition, each millet assumed responsibility for social and administrative functions not provided by the state, conducting affairs through a communal council (meclisimillî) without intervention from outside. From 1856 on, a series of imperial reform edicts introduced secular law codes for all citizens, and much of the millets' administrative autonomy was lost.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • MILLET — MILLE Céréale typique des pays du Tiers Monde à climat sec ou semi aride. Particulièrement cultivé en Afrique aux abords du 15e parallèle, le millet apparaît aussi dans l’Inde péninsulaire, en Extrême Orient, en ex U.R.S.S. La plante s’accommode… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • MILLET (J.-F.) — MILLET JEAN FRANÇOIS (1814 1875) La peinture de Millet, longtemps très populaire, a été appréciée en vertu de critères d’ordre social ou moral, mais rarement en tant qu’œuvre plastique: c’est ce qu’a justement entrepris la critique récente. Par… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Millet — puede referise a: Lugares geográficos Millet (Santa Lucía), localidad de Santa Lucía en el distrito de Anse la Raye. Personas Jean François Millet (1814 1875), pintor francés. Lluís Millet (1867 1941), compositor y director de coros español.… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Millet — (französisch und englisch für „Hirse“) ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Aimé Millet (1819–1891), französischer Bildhauer Catherine Millet (* 1948), Expertin für Moderne Kunst und Chefredakteurin des Magazins Art Press Francis Davis Millet …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • millet — mil let (m[i^]l l[e^]t), n. [F., dim. of mil, L. milium; akin to Gr. meli nh, AS. mil.] (Bot.) The name of several cereal and forage grasses which bear an abundance of small roundish grains. The common millets of Germany and Southern Europe are… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • millet — (n.) cereal grain, c.1400, from M.Fr. millet, dim. of mil millet, from L. milium millet (see MALLET (Cf. mallet)). Cognate with Gk. meline, Lith. malnus (pl.) millet …   Etymology dictionary

  • millet — [mil′it] n. [ME milet < MFr, dim. of mil < L milium, millet < IE * melēi , var. of base * mel , to grind > MILL1, Gr melinē, millet] 1. a) a cereal grass (Panicum miliaceum) whose small grain is used for food in Europe and Asia b) the …   English World dictionary

  • MILLET — MILLET, name for the religious communal organization of non Muslims in the Ottoman Empire. The Koran uses milla for religion or rite, e.g., religion of the Jews and Christians (2:114), and the religion of Abraham (2:124; 3:89). It is assumed that …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • millet — Millet, Milium milij. Qui vit de millet, Miliarius …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • MILLET — MILLET, the Panicum miliaceum, a summer plant of the Gramineae family, whose small seeds are utilized as fodder or are sometimes ground to produce a poor quality flour. It is regarded by some as identical with doḥan, one of the ingredients of the …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Millet — Millet, Johann Franz, genannt Francisque, geb. 1043 in Antwerpen, Landschafts , Porträt u. Historienmaler aus der Niederländischen Schule; ging nach Paris, wo er sich nach Poussin ausbildete u. gewann bei aller Einfarbigkeit einen hohen Styl der… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon


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