Miami


Miami
/muy am"ee, -am"euh/, n., pl. Miamis (esp. collectively) Miami.
1. a member of a North American Indian tribe of the Algonquian family, formerly located in northern Indiana, southern Michigan, and possibly Illinois, now extinct as a tribe.
2. their dialect of the Illinois language.
Miamian, n.
/muy am"ee, -am"euh/, n.
1. a city in SE Florida: seaside resort. 346,931.
2. Also called Great Miami. a river in W Ohio, flowing S into the Ohio River. 160 mi. (260 km) long.
3. a city in NE Oklahoma. 14,237.

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I
City (pop., 2000: 362,470), southeastern Florida, U.S., situated on Biscayne Bay at the mouth of the Miami River.

The southernmost large city in the continental U.S., it has a beach 7 mi (11 km) long. A Spanish mission was founded near the site in 1567, but permanent settlement did not begin until 1835, when U.S. forces built Fort Dallas for the removal of Seminole Indians to the West. The arrival of the railway in 1896 spurred development, and Miami was incorporated the same year. The city has been damaged by occasional hurricanes, notably in 1926 and 1935. Nearly 300,000 Cuban refugees have arrived since 1959 (see Cuba), establishing "Little Havana" within the city. It is a major resort and retirement centre, and its port handles the world's largest number of cruise-ship passengers. It is also a banking centre. Educational institutions include the University of Miami and Florida International University.
II
North American Indian people who live mostly in Oklahoma and Indiana, U.S. They call themselves Twitwee (Twatwa), which to them represents the call of the crane.

The name Miami is a derivation of their Ojibwa name, Oumami, meaning "People of the Peninsula." Their traditional homeland is spread across Illinois, northern Indiana, and Ohio. The Miami language belongs to the Algonquian family. The staple of the Miami diet was corn, though they also hunted bison. Each village consisted of mat-covered dwellings and a large house in which councils and ceremonies were held. A secret medicine society conducted rites aimed at ensuring tribal welfare. In the 19th century the Miami ceded most of their lands to the U.S., with one band remaining in Indiana and the rest removing to a reservation in Oklahoma. In the 2000 U.S. census some 3,800 people claimed sole Miami descent. See also Little Turtle.

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Introduction
 city, transportation and business hub of southeastern Florida, U.S., and seat (1844) of Miami-Dade county. It is a leading resort and Atlantic Ocean port situated on Biscayne Bay at the mouth of the Miami River. The Everglades area is a short distance to the west. Greater Miami, the state's largest urban concentration, comprises all the county, which includes Miami Beach (across the bay), Coral Gables, Hialeah, North Miami, and many smaller municipalities; together these make up the southern section of Florida's “Gold Coast.” Area city, 35 square miles (91 square km). Pop. (2000) city, 362,470; Miami–Miami Beach–Kendall MD, 2,253,362; Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Miami Beach MSA, 5,007,564; (2005 est.) city, 361,701; (2006 est.) Miami–Miami Beach–Kendall MD, 2,402,208; Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Miami Beach MSA, 5,463,857.

History
      Spaniards in the 16th century found a village (perhaps 2,000 years old) of Tequesta Indians on the site. The name Mayaimi, probably meaning “big water” or “sweet water,” may have referred to Lake Okeechobee (Okeechobee, Lake) or to local Native Americans who took their name from the lake. In 1567 the Spanish established a mission there as part of a futile attempt to subdue the Tequesta. They ceded the area to Great Britain in 1763, but regained it in 1783. After the United States acquired Florida from Spain (1821), Fort Dallas was built (1836) as a base during the Seminole Wars. A few settlers—among them Julia D. Tuttle, known as the “mother of Miami,” and William B. Brickell—gradually moved into the area.

      In 1896 Henry M. Flagler (Flagler, Henry M) extended his Florida East Coast Railway to the site after Tuttle and Brickell each gave him half of their landholdings for the project. Flagler had been convinced to extend the railroad after a freeze during the winter of 1894–95 killed most of Florida's citrus crop; Tuttle reportedly sent him a fresh orange blossom to prove that the freeze had not reached Miami. Flagler dredged the harbour, started constructing the Royal Palm Hotel, and promoted tourism. Miami was incorporated the same year.

 During the Florida land boom in the early and mid-1920s, the city's population more than tripled, but the collapse of this speculation, compounded by a devastating hurricane in 1926, dampened Miami's fortunes for more than a decade. Miami Beach underwent a brief construction boom in the mid-1930s, when many Art Deco buildings were erected, but this came to an end when, during World War II, soldiers replaced tourists at the oceanfront hotels, and long stretches of beach were converted to rifle ranges. After the war, many soldiers returned to the Miami area to live, and in the 1950s and '60s Latin American immigrants, particularly those from Cuba, began to arrive in large numbers. During the 1980s Miami gained a reputation as a centre of the illegal drug trade, and several acts of violence were directed against foreign tourists in the early 1990s; however, by the end of the 20th century tourism was rebounding. In 1992 Hurricane Andrew caused some 50 deaths and considerable property damage to areas of the county just south of Miami, although the city itself was largely spared.

The contemporary city
 The downtown skyline of Miami now features a contemporary look, with a large collection of gleaming, glass-walled skyscrapers accented with neon lighting at night. The city's close relationship to Latin America is especially well represented in its ethnic neighbourhoods. Several hundred thousand Cuban refugees have settled in the area since 1959, and the Little Havana district, just west of downtown, has developed as a largely Cuban enclave within the city. Its annual Calle Ocho festival (March; part of the Carnaval Miami celebration) draws large crowds of visitors. Little Haiti, to the north of downtown, developed as a primarily Haitian neighbourhood after refugees began arriving in the city in the 1990s.

      A subtropical climate helps to make Miami one of America's great winter resorts, and tourism is a major component of the city's economy. The miles of beaches are lined with glittering skyscraper hotels and are dotted with marinas, yacht clubs, and golf courses. The city is also a centre of international banking and finance, business services, manufacturing (including apparel, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals, printing, and metal products) and international commerce. The Port of Miami handles international shipping and is a world leader in cruise ship operations. Miami International Airport also handles international cargo going mostly to Latin America and the Caribbean. The city is served by a highway network that includes the Dixie Highway, Tamiami Trail, and Florida's Turnpike.

      The Miami Seaquarium, Vizcaya Museum and Gardens (1916; estate of industrialist James Deering), and Parrot Jungle and Gardens are among the area's many attractions. There are museums of history, art, and science, as well as several theatre, music, and dance organizations. Scuba diving, boat tours in the Everglades, and sport fishing are among the many popular outdoor activities in Miami, as are sailing regattas and fishing tournaments. Horse and greyhound racetracks and jai alai frontons offer pari-mutuel betting. The city is home to several professional sports teams, including the Florida Marlins (baseball), Miami Dolphins (gridiron football), and Miami Heat (basketball), and the annual Orange Bowl Festival (January) features a parade and college football game. Biscayne National Park is south of the city, and Everglades National Park is southwest.

 Metropolitan Miami has many institutions of higher education, including the University of Miami (Miami, University of) (1925) in Coral Gables, Barry University (1940) in Miami Shores, St. Thomas University (1961), Florida Memorial College (1879), International Fine Arts College (1965), Miami-Dade Community College (1960), and Florida International University (1972), site of the National Hurricane Center operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Jackson Memorial Hospital is the heart of a complex of medical services. The city also is a world leader in marine study. Located there are the famed University of Miami-affiliated Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and oceanographic laboratories of NOAA.

      city, seat (1907) of Ottawa county, northeastern Oklahoma, U.S. The city is located in the Ozark foothills on Neosho River near Grand Lake o' the Cherokees, impounded by Grand River Dam. Originally a trading post called Jimtown and renamed in 1890 for the Miami people, whose reservation was close by, it was laid out in 1891. The community, which is in an important cattle-raising and dairying region, developed rapidly as a commercial centre when lead and zinc were discovered nearby in 1905. Light manufactures include crushed particle board, steel springs, and furniture and carpeting. Miami is the seat of Northeastern Oklahoma A&M College (founded in 1919). Inc. 1910. Pop. (1990) 13,142; (2000) 13,704.

people
      Algonquian (Algonquian languages)-speaking North American Indians who lived in the area of what is now Green Bay, Wis., U.S., when first encountered by French explorers in the 17th century. The Miami also lived in established settlements at the southern end of Lake Michigan in what are now northeastern Illinois and northern Indiana and on the Kalamazoo River in what is now Michigan; they continued to expand as far as Detroit and Ohio but later withdrew from their eastern territories and settled in Indiana.

      Miami social organization was based on exogamous, or out-marrying, clans. Because it mandates marriage between, rather than within, extended family groups, this form of kinship fostered strongly interconnected communities. Clan chiefs served as members of the village council; one of their number was elected civil chief. A separate war chief was chosen on the basis of ability in leading raids. At the time of the first French contact, the Miami were divided into six bands, of which two, the Wea and the Piankashaw, later became separate tribes.

      The staple of the traditional Miami diet was a particular type of corn (maize) that they considered superior to that cultivated by their neighbours. During the summer the Miami occupied permanent agricultural villages; in the winter they moved to the prairies for communal bison hunts. In addition to mat-covered dwellings, each village had a large building in which councils and ceremonies were held. A major feature of Miami religion was the Midewiwin, or Grand Medicine Society (medicine society), a religious organization whose members were believed to be able to cure the sick and secure supernatural aid for tribal welfare. Sacred medicine bundles of magical objects were important in many Miami rites and ceremonies.

      In the 19th century the Miami ceded most of their lands to the United States, and many moved to a reservation in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) in 1867.

      Population estimates indicated approximately 6,500 Miami descendants in the early 21st century.

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Universalium. 2010.

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