meiosis


meiosis
meiotic /muy ot"ik/, adj.
/muy oh"sis/, n.
1. Cell Biol. part of the process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjugation and two cell divisions, in the course of which the diploid chromosome number becomes reduced to the haploid. Cf. mitosis.
2. Rhet.
a. belittlement.
b. expressive understatement, esp. litotes.
[1580-90; < Gk meíosis a lessening, equiv. to meio-, var. s. of meioûn to lessen (deriv. of meíon less) + -sis -SIS]

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Division of a gamete-producing cell in which the nucleus splits twice, resulting in four sex cells (gametes, or eggs and sperm), each possessing half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.

Meiosis is characteristic of organisms that reproduce sexually and have a diploid set of nuclear chromosomes (see ploidy). Before meiosis, chromosomes replicate and consist of joined sister strands (chromatids). Meiosis begins as homologous paternal and maternal chromosomes line up along the midline of the cell. The chromosomes exchange genetic material by the process of crossing-over (see linkage group), in which chromatid strands from homologous pairs entangle and exchange segments to produce chromatids containing genetic material from both parents. The pairs then separate and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell, which then pinches in half to form two daughter cells, each containing a haploid set (half the usual number) of double-stranded chromosomes. In the second round of meiotic division, the double-stranded chromosomes of each daughter cell are pulled apart, resulting in four haploid gametes. When two gametes unite during fertilization, each contributes its haploid set of chromosomes to the new individual, restoring the diploid number. See also mitosis.

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also called  reduction division 

      division of a germ cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and giving rise to four gametes (gamete), or sex cells, each possessing half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.

      A brief treatment of meiosis follows. For further discussion, see cell: Cell division and growth (cell).

      The process of meiosis is characteristic of organisms that reproduce sexually. Such species have in the nucleus of each cell a diploid (double) set of chromosomes, consisting of two haploid sets (one inherited from each parent). These haploid sets are homologous—i.e., they contain the same kinds of genes, but not necessarily in the same form. In humans, for example, each set of homologous chromosomes (chromosome) contains a gene for blood type, but one set may have the gene for blood type A and the other set the gene for blood type B.

      Prior to meiosis, each of the chromosomes in the diploid germ cell has replicated and thus consists of a joined pair of duplicate chromatids. Meiosis begins with the contraction of the chromosomes in the nucleus of the diploid cell. Homologous paternal and maternal chromosomes pair up along the midline of the cell. Each pair of chromosomes—called a tetrad, or a bivalent—consists of four chromatids. At this point, the homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material by the process of crossing over (see linkage group). The homologous pairs then separate, each pair being pulled to opposite ends of the cell, which then pinches in half to form two daughter cells. Each daughter cell of this first meiotic division contains a haploid set of chromosomes. The chromosomes at this point still consist of duplicate chromatids.

      In the second meiotic division, each haploid daughter cell divides. There is no further reduction in chromosome number during this division, as it involves the separation of each chromatid pair into two chromosomes, which are pulled to the opposite ends of the daughter cells. Each daughter cell then divides in half, thereby producing a total of four different haploid gametes. When two gametes unite during fertilization, each contributes its haploid set of chromosomes to the new individual, restoring the diploid number. See also mitosis.

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