/mahr"tn/, n.1. Archer John Porter /ahr"cheuhr/, born 1910, English biochemist: Nobel prize for chemistry 1952.2. Frank, 1890-1974, Swiss composer.3. Glenn Luther, 1886-1955, U.S. airplane designer and manufacturer.4. Homer Dodge, 1836-97, U.S. painter.5. Joseph W(illiam) Jr., 1884-1968, U.S. political leader and publisher: Speaker of the House 1947-49, 1953-55.6. Saint, A.D. 316?-397, French prelate: bishop of Tours 370?-397.7. a male given name: from the name of the Roman god Mars.
* * *IAny of several species of songbirds in the family Hirundinidae.In the U.S., the name refers to the purple martin (Progne subis), at 8 in. (20 cm) long, the largest U.S. swallow. The sand martin, or bank swallow (Riparia riparia), a 5-in. (12-cm) brown-and-white bird, breeds throughout the Northern Hemisphere, nesting in sandbank burrows. The house martin (Delichon urbica), blue-black above and white-rumped, is common in Europe. The African river martin (Pseudochelidon eurystomina) of the Congo is black, with red eyes and bill.II(as used in expressions)Amis MartinBormann MartinBuber MartinBülow Bernhard Heinrich Martin Karl prince vonCharcot Jean MartinDelany Martin RobisonDies Martin Jr.Frobisher Sir MartinFurtwängler Gustav Heinrich Ernst Martin WilhelmHall Charles MartinHeade Martin JohnsonHeidegger MartinRobert Martin HullCharles Martin JonesKing Martin Luther Jr.Lipset Seymour MartinLuther MartinMartin du Gard RogerMartin of Tours SaintMartin VMartin AgnesMartin Mary VirginiaMartin PaulMartin SteveMulroney Martin BrianNiemöller Friedrich Gustav Emil MartinSiemens Martin processRathke Martin HeinrichRyle Sir MartinSchongauer MartinScorsese MartinMarie Françoise Thérèse MartinVan Buren MartinZinkernagel Rolf MartinEdith Anna Oenone Somerville and Violet Florence MartinMartins Peter
* * *▪ king of Aragon and Sicilyalso called (until 1395) Martín, duke (duque) de Montblanchborn 1356, Gerona, Catalonia [Spain]died May 31, 1410, Barcelonaking of Aragon from 1395 and of Sicily (as Martin II from 1409). He was the son of Peter IV and brother of John I of Aragon.Martin's life was marked chiefly by the continued Aragonese intervention in Sicily. When Frederick III of Sicily died in 1377, leaving a daughter, Mary, as his heiress, there ensued a long period of disorder. Peter IV of Aragon, on the grounds that females were excluded from succession to the Sicilian crown, claimed it for himself as the nearest male heir; and Mary underwent a series of abductions. Peter, however, in the face of objections from the papacy and the Angevins, in 1380 ceded his pretensions to his son, Martin, whose own son Martin was to marry Mary. Peter IV died in 1387, leaving Aragon to his elder son John I; the queen of Sicily was brought to Spain in 1388, and her marriage to the younger Martin took place in 1390. In 1392 the couple landed in Sicily with Martin of Montblanch and began to reign as queen and king-consort, despite strong local opposition. Mary died in 1401, leaving her widower to reign alone as Martin I of Sicily; but meanwhile Martin de Montblanch had become king of Aragon as Martin I in 1395 through the death of John I. When Martin I of Sicily died without legitimate issue in 1409, he left his kingdom, with his second wife, Blanche of Navarre, as regent, to his father, who thus became Martin II.Martin, who had no surviving children of his own, intended that Sicily at least, if not Aragon too, should go to his grandson Fadrique (Frederick) de Luna, a bastard of Martin I of Sicily. On Martin's death, however, in 1410, this succession was contested; and Ferdinand of Antequera, son of Peter IV's daughter Leonor, having been chosen king of Aragon as Ferdinand I in 1412, defeated Fadrique's partisans and reestablished Blanche's authority as his regent in Sicily. Thenceforward the Aragonese (later the Spanish) and the Sicilian crowns were to remain united for nearly 300 years (until the War of the Spanish Succession).
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