Martin


Martin
/mahr"tn/, n.
1. Archer John Porter /ahr"cheuhr/, born 1910, English biochemist: Nobel prize for chemistry 1952.
2. Frank, 1890-1974, Swiss composer.
3. Glenn Luther, 1886-1955, U.S. airplane designer and manufacturer.
4. Homer Dodge, 1836-97, U.S. painter.
5. Joseph W(illiam) Jr., 1884-1968, U.S. political leader and publisher: Speaker of the House 1947-49, 1953-55.
6. Saint, A.D. 316?-397, French prelate: bishop of Tours 370?-397.
7. a male given name: from the name of the Roman god Mars.

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I
Any of several species of songbirds in the family Hirundinidae.

In the U.S., the name refers to the purple martin (Progne subis), at 8 in. (20 cm) long, the largest U.S. swallow. The sand martin, or bank swallow (Riparia riparia), a 5-in. (12-cm) brown-and-white bird, breeds throughout the Northern Hemisphere, nesting in sandbank burrows. The house martin (Delichon urbica), blue-black above and white-rumped, is common in Europe. The African river martin (Pseudochelidon eurystomina) of the Congo is black, with red eyes and bill.
II
(as used in expressions)
Amis Martin
Bormann Martin
Buber Martin
Bülow Bernhard Heinrich Martin Karl prince von
Charcot Jean Martin
Delany Martin Robison
Dies Martin Jr.
Frobisher Sir Martin
Furtwängler Gustav Heinrich Ernst Martin Wilhelm
Hall Charles Martin
Heade Martin Johnson
Heidegger Martin
Robert Martin Hull
Charles Martin Jones
King Martin Luther Jr.
Lipset Seymour Martin
Luther Martin
Martin du Gard Roger
Martin of Tours Saint
Martin Agnes
Martin Mary Virginia
Martin Paul
Martin Steve
Mulroney Martin Brian
Niemöller Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin
Siemens Martin process
Rathke Martin Heinrich
Ryle Sir Martin
Schongauer Martin
Scorsese Martin
Marie Françoise Thérèse Martin
Van Buren Martin
Zinkernagel Rolf Martin
Edith Anna Oenone Somerville and Violet Florence Martin
Martins Peter

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▪ king of Aragon and Sicily
also called (until 1395)  Martín, duke (duque) de Montblanch 
born 1356, Gerona, Catalonia [Spain]
died May 31, 1410, Barcelona

      king of Aragon from 1395 and of Sicily (as Martin II from 1409). He was the son of Peter IV and brother of John I of Aragon.

      Martin's life was marked chiefly by the continued Aragonese intervention in Sicily. When Frederick III of Sicily died in 1377, leaving a daughter, Mary, as his heiress, there ensued a long period of disorder. Peter IV of Aragon, on the grounds that females were excluded from succession to the Sicilian crown, claimed it for himself as the nearest male heir; and Mary underwent a series of abductions. Peter, however, in the face of objections from the papacy and the Angevins, in 1380 ceded his pretensions to his son, Martin, whose own son Martin was to marry Mary. Peter IV died in 1387, leaving Aragon to his elder son John I; the queen of Sicily was brought to Spain in 1388, and her marriage to the younger Martin took place in 1390. In 1392 the couple landed in Sicily with Martin of Montblanch and began to reign as queen and king-consort, despite strong local opposition. Mary died in 1401, leaving her widower to reign alone as Martin I of Sicily; but meanwhile Martin de Montblanch had become king of Aragon as Martin I in 1395 through the death of John I. When Martin I of Sicily died without legitimate issue in 1409, he left his kingdom, with his second wife, Blanche of Navarre, as regent, to his father, who thus became Martin II.

      Martin, who had no surviving children of his own, intended that Sicily at least, if not Aragon too, should go to his grandson Fadrique (Frederick) de Luna, a bastard of Martin I of Sicily. On Martin's death, however, in 1410, this succession was contested; and Ferdinand of Antequera, son of Peter IV's daughter Leonor, having been chosen king of Aragon as Ferdinand I in 1412, defeated Fadrique's partisans and reestablished Blanche's authority as his regent in Sicily. Thenceforward the Aragonese (later the Spanish) and the Sicilian crowns were to remain united for nearly 300 years (until the War of the Spanish Succession).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Martín — Martin ist ein männlicher Vorname und Familienname. Die weibliche Form des Namens lautet Martina. Der Nachname Martin ist in vielen Ländern verbreitet. In Frankreich zum Beispiel ist er der häufigste Familienname und auch im englischsprachigen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Martín — puede referirse a: Contenido 1 Nombre 1.1 Personajes 2 Apellido 2.1 Personajes 3 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Martin — steht für: Martin (Name), einen Familien und einen männlichen Vornamen Martin von Tours, Heiliger, den dritten Bischof von Tours (316–397 n. Chr.) Glenn L. Martin Company, einen US amerikanischer Flugzeughersteller Liste Dr. Martin, eine… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Martin MB-1 — Martin MB Martin MB 1 / MB 2 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Martin MB-2 — Martin MB Martin MB 1 / MB 2 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Martin MT — Martin MB Martin MB 1 / MB 2 …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Martin V —     Pope Martin V     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Martin V     (Oddone Colonna)     Born at Genazzano in the Campagna di Roma, 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431. He studied at the University of Perugia, became prothonotary Apostolic under… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • martin — ● martin nom masculin (de Martin, nom propre) Passereau asiatique voisin des étourneaux, insectivore, grégaire, souvent élevé en volière. Martin (Archer) (né en 1910) biochimiste anglais; inventeur, avec Richard Synge, de la chromatographie sur… …   Encyclopédie Universelle


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