marine


marine
/meuh reen"/, adj.
1. of or pertaining to the sea; existing in or produced by the sea: marine vegetation.
2. pertaining to navigation or shipping; nautical; naval; maritime.
3. serving on shipboard, as soldiers.
4. of or belonging to the marines.
5. adapted for use at sea: a marine barometer.
n.
6. a member of the U.S. Marine Corps.
7. one of a class of naval troops serving both on shipboard and on land.
8. seagoing ships collectively, esp. with reference to nationality or class; shipping in general.
9. a picture with a marine subject; seascape.
10. naval affairs, or the department of a government, as in France, having to do with such affairs.
11. dead marine, Australian Slang. an empty bottle of beer or spirits.
12. tell it or that to the marines! I don't believe your story; I refuse to be fooled.
[1325-75; ME maryne < MF marin (fem. marine) < L marinus of the sea, deriv. of mare sea; see -INE1]

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I
Member of a military force trained for service at sea and in land operations related to naval campaigns.

They existed as far back as the 5th century BC, when the Greek fleets were manned by epibatai, or heavily armed sea soldiers. In the Middle Ages ordinary soldiers were often assigned to shipboard duty; not until the naval wars of the 17th century was the distinct role of marines rediscovered almost simultaneously by the British and the Dutch, who raised the first two modern marine corps, the Royal Marine (1664) and the Koninklijke Nederlandse Corps Mariniers (1665). See also U.S. Marine Corps.
II
(as used in expressions)

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▪ 2003

      January 27, Southern Philippines. After experiencing engine trouble and encountering rough seas in the area, a ferry with some 70 persons aboard loses contact with coast guard officials; the boat is presumed to have sunk, and there are no signs of survivors.

      March 7, Off the coast of the island of Lampedusa, Italy. An overcrowded wooden boat capsizes about 105 km (65 mi) south of Lampedusa, between Tunisia and Sicily; the boat is packed with passengers reportedly from North Africa and intent on entering Italy illegally; at least 50 persons perish.

      Early April, Gulf of Aden. A boat en route from Somalia to Yemen sinks in rough seas; more than 90 persons die.

      April 6–7, Off the coast of southern Nigeria. A boat loaded with passengers and goods sinks between Port Harcourt and Nember, apparently after a leak developed and the boat's water pump failed; some 40 persons are feared dead.

      April 11, Central Philippines. A fire breaks out on a ferry traveling between the island of Masbate and the port city of Lucena, forcing passengers to jump overboard; 23 persons are confirmed dead, and 32 are missing.

      April 11, Central Tanzania. A ferry, possibly overloaded, capsizes on the Kilombero River near the town of Mahenge; at least 38 persons die.

      May 3, Southeastern Bangladesh. A ferry sinks during a rainstorm on the Meghna River, killing at least 271 persons.

      May 12, Off the coast of Birilan island, Phil. A ferry overturns and sinks after passengers, seeking shade, have gathered on one side of the vessel; 19 persons perish.

      May 20, Lake Victoria. A boat returning to the mainland of Uganda from Kalangala Island experiences engine failure, capsizes, and sinks; 27 persons are feared dead.

      June 11, Riau province, Indon. A passenger boat sinks in bad weather on the Kampar River on the island of Sumatra; 2 persons die, and 20 are missing and feared dead.

      September 15, Off the coast of Sicily. A Tunisian-registered fishing boat carrying some 130 illegal immigrants from Liberia to Italy capsizes in a storm and sinks; at least 36 persons die.

      September 26, Off the coast of The Gambia. In what is described as Africa's deadliest disaster at sea, a Senegalese ferry carrying more than twice its 550-passenger capacity capsizes in stormy weather; an estimated 1,200 persons die, according to the head of an official inquiry into the incident.

      October 22, Caspian Sea. An Azerbaijani-owned ferry en route from Aqtau, Kazakhstan, to Azerbaijan's capital, Baku, capsizes and sinks in stormy seas hours after sending a distress signal; of the 51 persons aboard, only 9 are rescued, and one of the survivors later dies in a hospital.

      November 13, Off the coast of West Bengal state, India. A cyclone strikes the Bay of Bengal, and scores of fishing boats sink during the storm; 10 deaths are confirmed, and at least 150 other fishermen are missing and feared dead.

      December 1, Off the coast of Libya. A fishing trawler with more than 100 illegal immigrants bound for Italy on board sinks in bad weather; 11 deaths are confirmed, and at least 50 are missing and feared dead.

      December 14, Northwestern Liberia. An overcrowded ferry capsizes on the Mofa River near Robertsport; more than 100 persons are feared drowned.

      December 18, Pará state, Braz. A ferry carrying more than twice its 150-passenger capacity capsizes on the Pará river near the town of Barcarena; at least 80 persons are missing and feared drowned.

      December 31, Off the coast of Tanzania. An overloaded ferry capsizes, reportedly during a storm; up to 40 persons are missing and feared dead.

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      member of a military force especially recruited, trained, and organized for service at sea and in land operations incident to naval campaigns. The use of marines goes far back in history. The 5th-century-BC Greek historians Herodotus and Thucydides referred to epibatai, or heavy-armed sea soldiers in the Greek fleets, while Polybius, in the 3rd–2nd century BC, described milites classiarii (“soldiers of the fleet”), a category of Roman soldier organized and specially armed for duty aboard warships. During the Middle Ages, ordinary soldiers in Europe were frequently embarked aboard ship to provide a fighting backbone, but not until the naval wars of the 17th century was the distinct and organized role of marines almost simultaneously rediscovered by the British and Dutch, who raised the first two modern corps of marines—the Royal Marine (1664) and the Koninklijke Nederlandse Corps Mariniers (1665), respectively. The United States Marine Corps (United States Marine Corps, The) (q.v.), organized in 1775, has become the most famous organization of the kind, but other countries also maintain marine corps.

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Universalium. 2010.

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