mandarin


mandarin
/man"deuh rin/, n.
1. (in the Chinese Empire) a member of any of the nine ranks of public officials, each distinguished by a particular kind of button worn on the cap.
2. (cap.) the standard Chinese language.
3. (cap.) a northern Chinese dialect, esp. as spoken in and around Beijing.
4. a small, spiny citrus tree, Citrus reticulata, native to China, bearing lance-shaped leaves and flattish, orange-yellow to deep-orange loose-skinned fruit, some varieties of which are called tangerines.
5. any of several plants belonging to the genus Disporum or Streptopus, of the lily family, as S. roseus (rose mandarin) or D. lanuginosum (yellow mandarin), having drooping flowers and red berries.
6. an influential or powerful government official or bureaucrat.
7. a member of an elite or powerful group or class, as in intellectual or cultural milieus: the mandarins of the art world.
adj.
8. of or pertaining to a mandarin or mandarins.
9. elegantly refined, as in language or taste.
[1580-90; < Pg mandarim, alter. (by assoc. with mandar to order) of Malay mantari < Hindi mantri, Skt mantrin councilor]

* * *

In imperial China, a public official drawn from the ranks of the lesser officeholders who had achieved success in the Chinese examination system.

The word comes from the Portuguese version of the Malay term for a minister of state. It has come to mean a pedantic official, a bureaucrat, or a person of position and influence (and usually a traditionalist or reactionary mindset) in intellectual or literary circles. The Mandarin language is the most widely spoken of the Chinese languages.

* * *

▪ public official

      in imperial China, a public official of any of nine grades or classes that were filled by individuals from the ranks of lesser officeholders who passed examinations in Chinese literary classics. The word comes through the Portuguese mandarim from Malay mantri, a counselor or minister of state; the ultimate origin of the word is the Sanskrit root man-, meaning to “think.” See Chinese civil service.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • (Mandarin) — (Mandarin) …   Deutsch Wörterbuch

  • mandarin — [ mɑ̃darɛ̃ ] n. m. • 1581; port. mandarim, altér. d apr. mandar « mander, ordonner », du malais mantari « conseiller » 1 ♦ Hist. Haut fonctionnaire de l empire chinois, coréen. Les mandarins étaient généralement recrutés par concours parmi les… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Mandarin Ji-Lu — Mandarin jilu Distribution en République populaire de Chine des huit principaux dialectes du mandarin. L aire du mandarin jilu figure en rose. Le mandarin jilu (冀鲁官话, Jìlǔ guānhuà [1], littéralement « mandarin d …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mandarin Ji Lu — Mandarin jilu Distribution en République populaire de Chine des huit principaux dialectes du mandarin. L aire du mandarin jilu figure en rose. Le mandarin jilu (冀鲁官话, Jìlǔ guānhuà [1], littéralement « mandarin d …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mandarin — steht für: Mandarin (Titel), ein Beamtentitel im kaiserlichen China Nordchinesische Dialekte, chinesische Dialekte Hochchinesisch, ein bestimmter nordchinesischer Dialekt Javanese Katze (Synonyme: Orientalisch Langhaar, Mandarin) Mandarin… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mandarin — Sm chinesischer Würdenträger erw. exot. (17. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt, wohl aus dem Portugiesischen. Das Wort ist eigentlich indisch (ai. mantrín Ratgeber eines Fürsten zu ai. mántra Rede, Ratschlag ) und wurde von den Portugiesen in der Form… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Mandarin — Man da*rin , n. [Pg. mandarim, from Malay mantr[=i] minister of state, prop. a Hind. word, fr. Skr. mantrin a counselor, manira a counsel, man to think.] 1. A Chinese public officer or nobleman; a civil or military official in China and Annam.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Mandarín — puede referirse a: Chino mandarín, referido al conjunto de dialectos chinos. Mandarín (burócrata), antiguo funcionario de China y otro países asiáticos. Mandarín (cómic), supervillano de Marvel Comics. Esta página de desambiguación cataloga… …   Wikipedia Español

  • mandarin — [ˈmændərın] n [Sense: 1; Date: 1700 1800; : French; Origin: mandarine, from Spanish mandarina, probably from mandarín MANDARIN3 ; perhaps because mandarins wore orange colored clothes.] [Sense: 2 3; Date: 1500 1600; : Portuguese; Origin: mandarim …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • mandarín — sustantivo masculino 1. Área: linguística Variedad lingüística del chino, oficial en China, que es la más hablada del mundo: hablar mandarín. 2. Funcionario, civil o militar, en la antigua China imperial …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • mandarin — ► NOUN 1) (Mandarin) the standard literary and official form of Chinese. 2) a high ranking official in the former imperial Chinese civil service. 3) a powerful official or senior bureaucrat. 4) (also mandarine) a small citrus fruit with a loose… …   English terms dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.