/meuh dras", -drahs"/, n.1. a seaport in and the capital of Tamil Nadu state, in SE India, on the Bay of Bengal. 3,169,930.2. former name of Tamil Nadu.
* * *▪ Indiacapital of Tamil Nadu state, India, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal.Madras is the shortened name of the fishing village Madraspatnam, where the British East India Company built a fort and trading post in 1639–40. At that time, the weaving of cotton fabrics was a local industry, and the English invited the weavers and native merchants to settle near the fort. By 1652 the factory of Fort St. George (Saint George, Fort) was recognized as a presidency (an administrative unit governed by a president), and between 1668 and 1749 the company expanded its control. About 1801, by which time the last of the local rulers had been shorn of his powers, the English had become masters of southern India, and Madras had become their administrative and commercial capital.Madras developed without a plan from its 17th-century core, formed by the fort and the Indian quarters. To the north and northwest are the industrial areas; the main residential areas are to the west and south, and the old villages are in the centre. The most distinctive buildings in the city are the seven large temples in the Dravidian style, situated in the sections of George Town, Mylapore, and Triplicane. Of the buildings of the British period, the Chepauk Palace and the University Senate House (both in the Deccan Muslim style) and the Victoria Technical Institute and the High Court buildings (both in the Indo-Saracenic style) are generally considered to be the most attractive. A number of modern high-rises have also been built.Industries include vehicle factories, an electrical-engineering firm, rubber and fertilizer factories, and a refinery. The main commodities exported from Madras are leather, iron ore, and cotton textiles. Wheat, machinery, iron and steel, and raw cotton are imported.There are numerous educational institutions in Madras. Professional education can be obtained in the state medical colleges, the colleges of engineering and technology, the College of Carnatic Music, the College of Arts and Crafts, and the teacher-training colleges. The city is also the site of the University of Madras (Madras, University of) (1857), which has several advanced centres of research. The Indian Institute of Technology, the Central Leather Research Institute, and the Regional Laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research are other noteworthy scientific institutions.Cultural institutions include the Madras Music Academy, devoted to the encouragement of Carnatic music (the music of the historic region between the southern Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal and the Deccan Plateau). The Kalakshetra is a centre of dance and music, and the Rasika Ranjini Sabha, in Mylapore, encourages the theatrical arts. The suburban town of Kodambakkam, with its numerous film studios, is described as the Hollywood of southern India. Three theatres—the Children's Theatre, the Annamalai Manram, and the Museum Theatre—are popular. The Madras Government Museum has exhibitions on the history and physical aspects of Tamil Nadu. There is a small collection of East India Company antiquities in the Fort Museum and a collection of paintings in the National Art Gallery. The government of Tamil Nadu officially changed the name of the city to Chennai in 1996. Pop. (2001) 4,343,645; urban agglom., 6,560,242.
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MADRAS — Une des principales villes de la république de l’Inde avec Bombay (Mumbai), Delhi et Calcutta, Madras comptait 3 841 000 habitants lors du recensement de 1991 (5 420 000 hab. pour l’agglomération). C’est à partir de Madras, troisième comptoir… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Madras — • Archdiocese in India Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Madras Madras † Catholic En … Catholic encyclopedia
MADRAS — (today Chennai), city in S. India. Formerly known as Fort St. George, Madras was the first territorial acquisition of the English East India Company in 1639. In the last decades of the 17th century its diamond trade attracted Anglo Portuguese… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Madras  — Madras (offiziell: Presidency of Fort Saint George), Präsidentschaft des britisch ind. Kaiserreichs (s. Karte »Ostindien«), der südlichste Teil der vorderindischen Halbinsel, erstreckt sich vom Kap Komorin unter 8°4 nördl. Br. am Golf von… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Madras  — Madras, Hauptstadt der gleichnamigen britischindischen Präsidentschaft (s. oben), an der Koromandelküste unter 13°4 nördl. Br., drittgrößte Stadt des britisch indischen Kaiserreichs, im Sommer Europäern durch Cholera, Fieber und Dysenterie… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Madras — Madras, die Hauptstadt der engl. ostind. Compagnie auf der Koromandelküste, unter dem glücklichsten Himmelsstrich gelegen, die Hauptstation für den Handel zwischen England und Indien, der Sammelplatz aller der fleißigen Shawlarbeiter, Tuch und… … Damen Conversations Lexikon
madras — MADRÁS s.n. Ţesătură cu urzeală de mătase şi cu bătătură de bumbac. [< fr. madras, cf. Madras – oraş în India]. Trimis de LauraGellner, 22.05.2005. Sursa: DN MÁDRAS s. n. ţesătură cu urzeală de mătase şi bătătură de bumbac. (< fr. madras) … Dicționar Român
madras — ma*dras , n. [So named after Madras, a city and presidency of India.] 1. A large silk and cotton kerchief, usually of bright colors, such as those often used by negroes for turbans. A black woman in blue cotton gown, red and yellow madras turban … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Madras — Madras, 1) Präsidentschaft des Angloindischen Reichs, den Osten u. die Südspitze des Dekan umfassend, 6242 QM. ohne die einheimischen Schutzstaaten, mit letztern aber 8690 QM. groß, im Westen von den Westlichen Ghats, im Osten von den Östlichen… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Madras — Madras, OR U.S. city in Oregon Population (2000): 5078 Housing Units (2000): 1952 Land area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq.… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Madras, OR — U.S. city in Oregon Population (2000): 5078 Housing Units (2000): 1952 Land area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places