Louis VII


Louis VII
("the Young") 1121?-80, king of France 1137-80 (son of Louis VI).

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known as Louis the Younger

born с 1120
died Sept. 18, 1180, Paris

King of France (1137–80).

One of the Capetian kings, he married Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1137, thus temporarily extending his kingdom to the Pyrenees. Doubtful of her fidelity, he had the marriage annulled in 1152 and, after the death of his second wife, married Alix of Champagne, who bore him his son and heir, Philip II Augustus. Eleanor married the future Henry II of England, who took control of Aquitaine and carried on a long rivalry with Louis (1152–74) marked by recurrent warfare and constant intrigue. Louis was joined by Conrad III in leading the Second Crusade (1147–49), which failed in all its objectives.

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▪ king of France
byname  Louis The Younger,  French  Louis Le Jeune 
born c. 1120
died Sept. 18, 1180, Paris

      Capetian king of France who pursued a long rivalry, marked by recurrent warfare and continuous intrigue, with Henry II of England.

      In 1131 Louis was anointed as successor to his father, Louis VI, and in 1137 he became the sole ruler at his father's death. Louis married Eleanor, daughter of William X, duke of Aquitaine, in 1137, a few days before his effective rule began, and he thus temporarily extended the Capetian lands to the Pyrenees. Louis continued his father's pacification program by building the prestige of the kingship through an administrative government based on trustworthy men of humble origin and by consolidating his rule over his royal domains rather than by adding new acquisitions. From 1141 to 1143 he was involved in a fruitless conflict with Count Thibaut of Champagne and the papacy. But thereafter his relations with the popes were good; Alexander (Alexander III) II, whom he supported against Frederick Barbarossa, took refuge in France. But the major threat to his reign came from Geoffrey (Geoffrey IV), count of Anjou and, briefly, of Normandy, and Geoffrey's son Henry, who later (1154) became King Henry II of England as well as ruler of both Anjou and Normandy. After Louis repudiated his wife Eleanor for misconduct on March 21, 1152, she married Henry, who then took over control of Aquitaine. Ironically, this act was probably to Capetian advantage because Aquitaine might have drained the resources of Louis's kingdom while bringing him little revenue. After the death of Louis's second wife, he married Alix of Champagne, whose Carolingian blood brought added prestige to the monarchy (1160); their son became Philip II Augustus.

      Louis might have defeated Henry if he had made concerted attacks rather than weak assaults on Normandy in 1152. Anglo-Norman family disputes saved Louis's kingdom from severe incursions during the many conflicts that Louis had with Henry between 1152 and 1174. Louis was helped by the quarrel (1164–70) between Henry and Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and a revolt (1173–74) of Henry's sons. Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, who acted as regent in 1147–49 while Louis was away on the Second Crusade, is the primary historian for Louis's reign.

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Universalium. 2010.

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