Livonia


Livonia
Livonian, adj., n.
/li voh"nee euh/, n.
1. a former Russian province on the Baltic: now part of Latvia and Estonia.
2. a city in SE Michigan, near Detroit. 104,814.

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Region, eastern coast of Baltic Sea, north of Lithuania.

Originally inhabited by the Livs, a Finno-Ugric people, it eventually expanded to include nearly all of modern Latvia and Estonia. In the 13th century it was conquered and Christianized by the Order of the Brothers of the Sword and organized into the Livonian confederation. A Russian invasion set off the Livonian War (1558–82), in which Russia, Poland, and Sweden seized portions of it. Sweden eventually gained control of most of it but ceded the region to Russia in 1721. In 1918 the northern portion became part of independent Estonia and the southern portion joined independent Latvia.

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      city, Wayne county, southeastern Michigan, U.S. It is a western suburb of Detroit. It originated in 1834 as Livonia township (named for Livonia, N.Y.) and was primarily a farming community for more than a century. After World War II it rapidly experienced planned industrial and residential growth. Automobile parts form the bulk of local manufactures. Livonia is the site of Madonna University (Roman Catholic; 1947) and Schoolcraft College (1961), a junior college. Inc. city, 1950. Pop. (2000) city, 100,545; Detroit-Warren-Livonia MSA, 4,452,557; (2005 est.) city, 97,977; Detroit-Warren-Livonia MSA, 4,488,335.

▪ historical region, Europe
German  Livland,  

      lands on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, north of Lithuania; the name was originally applied by Germans in the 12th century to the area inhabited by the Livs, a Finno-Ugric people whose settlements centred on the mouths of the Western Dvina and Gauja rivers, but eventually it was used to refer to nearly all of modern Latvia and Estonia. During the 13th century greater Livonia, which was inhabited by several Baltic and Finnish tribes, was conquered and Christianized by the Order of the Brothers of the Sword (Brothers of the Sword, Order of the) (founded 1202; after 1237, the Order of Teutonic Knights of Livonia). The conquered territory was organized into the Livonian confederation, which consisted of ecclesiastical states, free towns, and regions ruled directly by the knights. After 1419, when the various political elements combined to form a common legislative diet, the Knights and their vassals emerged as the dominant estate. They prospered, in particular by supplying grain for the Baltic Sea trade, but they were not politically united among themselves; and mutual suspicion and conflicting interests prevented them from overcoming their rivalry with the other estates (i.e., the bishops and the autonomous cities). By the middle of the 16th century the problems of religious disunity resulting from the spread of Protestantism and of peasant discontent had also become acute in Livonia.

      When Russia invaded the area (beginning the Livonian War, 1558–83) in an effort to prevent Poland-Lithuania from gaining dominance over it, the Livonian Knights were unable to defend themselves. They disbanded their order and dismembered Livonia (Union of Wilno, 1561). Lithuania incorporated the knights' territory north of the Western Dvina River (i.e., Livonia proper); Courland, the area south of the Western Dvina, became a Polish fief. Sweden, which also had acquired an interest in the area, seized northern Estonia. This territorial distribution remained in effect until 1621, when Sweden took the cities of Riga and Jelgava (Mitau, the capital of Courland) and subsequently won all Estonia as well as northern Latvia (i.e., the region of Vidzeme or Livonia) from the Polish-Lithuanian state (Truce of Altmark, 1629).

      Sweden retained these territories for almost a century, defending them from both Poland (Polish-Swedish War, 1654–60) and Russia (Russo-Swedish War, 1654–61). In 1721, however, after the Great Northern War, Sweden ceded them to Russia (Treaty of Nystad), which also, as a result of the partitions of Poland, annexed Latgale (1772)—the southeastern section of Livonia that had been retained by Poland in 1629—and Courland (1795). Historic Livonia was then divided into three governments within the Russian Empire: Estonia (i.e., the northern part of ethnic Estonia), Livonia (i.e., the southern part of ethnic Estonia and northern Latvia), and Courland. After the October Revolution in Russia (1917), Latvia and Estonia proclaimed their independence; they were incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940, though under German occupation from 1941 to 1944.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Livonia — ( li. Līvõmō, Latvian and lt. Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa ; Finnish: Liivinmaa ; German and Swedish: Livland ; Polish: Inflanty , Liwlandia ; ru. Лифляндия / Liflyandiya ) was once the land of the Finnic Livonians inhabiting the principal… …   Wikipedia

  • Livonia — Livonia. Historia de Letonia …   Wikipedia Español

  • Livonia — Livonia, MO U.S. village in Missouri Population (2000): 114 Housing Units (2000): 62 Land area (2000): 0.265885 sq. miles (0.688640 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.265885 sq. miles (0.688640 sq …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Livonia — steht für: den historischen Name für Livland, eine Landschaft und ehemalige Provinz im Baltikum Baltische Corporation Livonia Dorpat, eine baltische Studentenverbindung Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Livonia (Indiana) Livonia (Louisiana)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Livonia — alguna vez fue el área habitado por los livonios, pero en la Edad Media vino a designar un territorio mucho más extenso controlado por la Orden de Livonia en las costas orientales del Mar Báltico en las actuales Letonia y Estonia. Sus fronteras… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Livonia, IN — U.S. town in Indiana Population (2000): 112 Housing Units (2000): 50 Land area (2000): 1.044527 sq. miles (2.705312 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.044527 sq. miles (2.705312 sq. km) FIPS code …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Livonia, LA — U.S. town in Louisiana Population (2000): 1339 Housing Units (2000): 545 Land area (2000): 1.806323 sq. miles (4.678355 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.806323 sq. miles (4.678355 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Livonia, MI — U.S. city in Michigan Population (2000): 100545 Housing Units (2000): 38658 Land area (2000): 35.718113 sq. miles (92.509485 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.119188 sq. miles (0.308696 sq. km) Total area (2000): 35.837301 sq. miles (92.818181 sq. km) …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Livonia, MO — U.S. village in Missouri Population (2000): 114 Housing Units (2000): 62 Land area (2000): 0.265885 sq. miles (0.688640 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.265885 sq. miles (0.688640 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Livonia, NY — U.S. village in New York Population (2000): 1373 Housing Units (2000): 560 Land area (2000): 1.021947 sq. miles (2.646830 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.021947 sq. miles (2.646830 sq. km) FIPS …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • LIVONIA — vulgo la LIVONIE Gallis, LIFFLANDT Germanis. Alias suberat Regi Poloniae, nunc autem post plurimos motus Regi Sueciae pro maiori parte subst. Terminatur a Sept. sinu Finnico, ab Occ. Rigensi s. mari Baltico, a Mer. Semigalliâ et Lithuaniâ, et ab… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale


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