—Liverpudlian /liv'euhr pud"lee euhn/, n., adj./liv"euhr poohl'/, n.a seaport in Merseyside, in W England, on the Mersey estuary. 548,800.
* * *It forms the nucleus of the metropolitan county of Merseyside in the historic county of Lancashire. King John granted its charter in 1207. Its growth was slow until the 18th century, when it expanded rapidly as a result of trade with the Americas and the West Indies, becoming Britain's most important port after London. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (opened 1830) was the first in England to link two major cities. Heavily damaged in World War II, it declined in importance as a port and an industrial centre in the postwar era. The birthplace of the Beatles, it is also the seat of the University of Liverpool (1903).
* * *city and seaport, England, forming the nucleus of the metropolitan county of Merseyside in the historic county of Lancashire. The city proper, which is a metropolitan borough of Merseyside, forms an irregular crescent along the north shore of the Mersey (Mersey, River) estuary a few miles from the Irish Sea. The docklands and several areas of the historic centre of the city collectively were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2004.The first significant date in the history of Liverpool is 1207, when King John of England granted a charter for a planned new town there. The town's medieval growth was slow, but in the 18th century it expanded rapidly as a result of profitable trade with the Americas and the West Indies and became the second most important port in Britain. A major element in the general trading pattern was the Liverpool Triangle—the exchange of manufactured goods from the Mersey hinterland for slaves in West Africa who were in turn traded for sugar, molasses, spices, and other plantation crops in the West Indies.The first dock in Liverpool was built in 1715. By the end of the century four other docks were established along the Mersey, so that the port even outranked London in dock space. In 1830 the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first in England to link two major cities, was opened. A rail network providing easy and cheap access to all major British industrial centres was soon created, and steam ferry links between Liverpool and the Wirral, across the Mersey River, were established. This growth was accompanied by high levels of immigration from surrounding areas and from Ireland, especially during and after the Irish famine (1845–48).By the beginning of the 20th century Liverpool had become the centre of 7 miles (11 km) of docks extending along the Mersey from Hornby (1884) in the north to Herculaneum (1866) in the south. Additional improvements were made to the docks, but after World War II Liverpool declined as an exporting and passenger port. This change can be attributed mainly to the decreasing significance, in the economic life of Britain, of Liverpool's industrial hinterland and its traditional trade with the United States and West Africa. Low capital investment and unemployment in the docks have intensified the situation.Liverpool continues to exert a great degree of dominance over the surrounding metropolitan region. Although the traditional industries of transport, communication, distribution, and shipping have declined, they are still important in the economic life of the city.Paramount among Liverpool's important contributions to 20th-century popular culture were the Beatles (Beatles, the), who emerged from the , part of the city's musical scene in the 1960s, to become the world's best-known rock group. Local “performance” poets such as Roger McGough, Adrian Henri, and Brian Patten also helped popularize poetry in the 1960s. And from the heyday of the music hall to the radio comedy of Tommy Handley in the 1940s, Liverpudlians have contributed to the British comedy tradition.Architectural landmarks include the 18th-century Town Hall and the 19th-century St. George's Hall; the Neo-Gothic Anglican cathedral, founded in 1904 and completed in 1978; and the Roman Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral (1967), of strikingly modern design. The Tate Liverpool (a branch of the national Tate galleries), Merseyside County Museum and Library, the Walker Art Gallery, the Picton Library, and the University of Liverpool (chartered 1881) are among the many cultural institutions. There is also a well-known symphony orchestra in the city. Pop. (2001) 439,473.former town, Queens county, southeastern Nova Scotia, Canada, lying at the mouth of the Mersey River, 88 miles (142 km) west-southwest of Halifax. In 1996 it amalgamated with Queens Municipal District to form the Region of Queens Municipality.The site was called Ogumkiqueok by the Mi'kmaq and Port Rossignol (1604) by Pierre du Gua, sieur de Monts, an early colonizer. Under French occupancy it was known as Port Senior, or Port Saviour, but when New England settlers arrived in 1759 it was renamed for Liverpool, England. During and after the American Revolution, the harbour was a base for privateers equipped by local seamen who joined battle against the Americans. In 1781 the town was subjected to a retaliatory attack by an American expedition from Salem, Massachusetts. During the War of 1812 (1812, War of) the Liverpool Packet, sailing out of Liverpool, was said to have captured 100 American merchantmen.Paper, fish, and timber were the town's major products, and after World War II marine building and refitting became an important industry. The home of Colonel Simeon Perkins, a Nova Scotian diarist, built in 1766, was restored as a museum. Inc. 1897.
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