/lev"euh leuhr/, n.a person or thing that levels.[1590-1600; LEVEL + -ER1]
* * *Member of a republican faction in England during the English Civil Wars and Commonwealth.The name was coined by the movement's enemies to suggest that its supporters wished to "level men's estates." The movement began in 1645–46 and demanded that sovereignty rest with the House of Commons (to the exclusion of king and lords), believing that manhood suffrage would make Parliament truly representative. The Levelers dominated the New Model Army, but the Putney debates in the army council discussing the Levelers' new social contract (1647) ended in deadlock. The generals restored army discipline by force, ending the Levelers' political power.
* * *▪ English historyalso spelled Leveller,member of a republican and democratic faction in England during the period of the Civil Wars and Commonwealth. The name Levelers was given by enemies of the movement to suggest that its supporters wished to “level men's estates.”The Leveler movement originated in 1645–46 among radical supporters of Parliament in and around London. The Civil War had been waged in the name of Parliament and people: the Levelers demanded that real sovereignty should be transferred to the House of Commons (to the exclusion of king and lords); that manhood suffrage, a redistribution of seats, and annual or biennial sessions of Parliament should make that legislative body truly representative; and that government should be decentralized to local communities. They put forward a program of economic reform in the interests of small property holders—complete equality before the law, the abolition of trading monopolies, the reopening of enclosed land, security of land tenure for copyholders, no conscription (impressment) or billeting, drastic law reform, the abolition of tithes (and so of a state church), and complete freedom of religious worship and organization. Disappointed by Parliament's attitude, the Levelers turned directly to the people—and to the New Model Army.In April 1647 the army rank and file elected agitators who were largely influenced by Leveler ideas. The generals had to accept an army council that included these ordinary soldiers, as well as officers. At Putney, in October 1647, this representative body discussed the Agreement of the People, a document presented by the Levelers as a new social contract to refound the state that had been dissolved by Parliament's victory in the Civil War. The Putney debates on this document ended in deadlock, however, and the generals restored discipline in the army by force. In March 1649, John Lilburne and other Leveler leaders were imprisoned. A mutiny of Leveler troops in London was suppressed, and in May a more serious revolt was put down in Oxfordshire. That was the end of the Levelers as an organized political force.The Levelers never won national support. Their sea-green colours held London's streets, and the troops listened to them eagerly, but propaganda was difficult among a population used to taking its ideas from the church and the landed aristocracy. The Leveler failure to capture the support of the army was decisive. But had they been allowed time to educate a democratic electorate, their program was well calculated to appeal to peasant farmers and artisans—the overwhelming majority of the people. Their ideas were more likely to command widespread support than had those of the communistic Diggers, for they also sought to appeal to men of small property and independence. Their appeal to reason against arguments drawn from precedent or biblical authority marks a milestone in political thought, and the pamphlets of some of their leaders are important in the evolution of popular English prose. Some of their social ideas were taken over by the Quakers.
* * *
См. также в других словарях:
Leveler — Album par August Burns Red Sortie 21 juin 2011 Enregistrement Février mars 2011 Durée 48:04 Genre Metalcore, metal progressif, mathcore, metal chrétien … Wikipédia en Français
Leveler — Lev el*er ( [ e]r), n. [Written also leveller.] 1. One who, or that which, levels. [1913 Webster] 2. One who would remove social inequalities or distinctions; a socialist. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
leveler — [lev′əl ər] n. 1. one that levels 2. a person who wishes to abolish political and social inequalities 3. [L ] a member of an English party that arose among radical Parliamentarians ( c. 1646) and advocated the leveling of all social ranks and the … English World dictionary
Leveler — A leveler is an audio process, similar to compression, which is used to reduce the dynamic range of a signal, so that the quietest portion of the signal is loud enough to hear and the loudest portion is not too loud. A leveler is different from a … Wikipedia
leveler — noun a) A person or thing that levels. I adjusted the leveler built into each leg of the table, but it still wobbled. b) A person holding a political opinion in favor of eliminating disparities between the haves and the have nots … Wiktionary
leveler — or leveller noun Date: 1598 1. one that levels 2. a. capitalized one of a group of radicals arising during the English Civil War and advocating equality before the law and religious toleration b. one favoring the removal of political, social, or… … New Collegiate Dictionary
leveler — lev|el|er [ levlər ] noun count something that makes all people seem equal because it affects them all in the same way … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
leveler — levÂ·elÂ·er || levlÉ™(r) n. person or thing that makes level; supporter of equality in society … English contemporary dictionary
leveler — lev·el·er … English syllables
leveler — lev•el•er [[t]ˈlɛv ə lər[/t]] n. 1) a person or thing that levels 2) a person or thing that promotes the abolition of inequalities or other distinctions between people Also, esp. brit.,leveller Etymology: 1590–1600 … From formal English to slang