less


less
/les/, adv., a compar. of little with least as superl.
1. to a smaller extent, amount, or degree: less exact.
2. most certainly not (often prec. by much or still): He could barely pay for his own lodging, much less for that of his friend.
3. in any way different; other: He is nothing less than a thief.
4. less than, by far short of being; not in the least; hardly at all: The job is less than perfect.
adj., a compar. of little with least as superl.
5. smaller in size, amount, degree, etc.; not so large, great, or much: less money; less speed.
6. lower in consideration, rank, or importance: no less a person than the manager.
7. fewer: less than a dozen.
n.
8. a smaller amount or quantity: Hundreds of soldiers arrived, but less of them remained.
9. something inferior or not as important: He was tortured for less.
10. minus; without: a year less two days; six dollars less tax.
[bef. 900; ME; OE laes (adv.), laessa (adj.); c. OFris lês (adv.), lêssa (adj.). See LEAST]
Syn. 5. See small.
Usage. Even though LESS has been used before plural nouns (less words; less men) since the time of King Alfred, many modern usage guides say that only FEWER can be used in such contexts. LESS, they say, should modify singular mass nouns (less sugar; less money) and singular abstract nouns (less honesty; less love). It should modify plural nouns only when they suggest combination into a unit, group, or aggregation: less than $50 (a sum of money); less than three miles (a unit of distance). With plural nouns specifying individuals or readily distinguishable units, the guides say that FEWER is the only proper choice: fewer words; fewer men; no fewer than 31 of the 50 states.
Modern standard English practice does not reflect this distinction. When followed by than, LESS occurs at least as often as FEWER in modifying plural nouns that are not units or groups, and the use of LESS in this construction is increasing in all varieties of English: less than eight million people; no less than 31 of the 50 states. When not followed by than, FEWER is more frequent only in formal written English, and in this construction also the use of LESS is increasing: This year we have had less crimes, less accidents, and less fires than in any of the last five years.

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Universalium. 2010.

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