Leopold III


Leopold III
1901-83, king of Belgium 1934-51 (son of Albert I).

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orig. Léopold-Philippe-Charles-Albert-Meinrad-Hubertus-Marie-Miguel

born Nov. 3, 1901, Brussels, Belg.
died Sept. 25, 1983, Brussels

King of the Belgians (1934–51).

He succeeded his father, Albert I, and favoured an independent foreign policy but not strict neutrality. In World War II he assumed command of the Belgian army, but he surrendered his encircled forces 18 days after the German invasion in May 1940. The Belgian government repudiated his decision to surrender and remain with his forces rather than join the government-in-exile in London. Under house arrest through the war, he later went to Switzerland (1945–50) to await resolution of the controversy. Though 58% of voters voted for his return to the throne, he abdicated in 1951 in favour of his son Baudouin.

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▪ king of Belgium
French  in full Léopold-philippe-charles-albert-meinr Ad-hubertus-marie-miguel,  Dutch  in full Leopold Filips Karel Albert Meinrad Hubertus Maria Miguel 
born Nov. 3, 1901, Brussels
died Sept. 25, 1983, Brussels

      king of the Belgians whose actions as commander in chief of the Belgian Army during the German conquest of Belgium (1940) in World War II aroused opposition to his rule, eventually leading to his abdication in 1951.

      The son of Albert I and his consort Elisabeth of Bavaria, Leopold served as a private soldier during the final campaign of World War I. On Nov. 10, 1926, he married Princess Astrid of Sweden (died August 1935); their children were Joséphine-Charlotte, Baudouin, and Albert. Leopold became king of the Belgians following his father's death on Feb. 17, 1934. Favouring an independent foreign policy, but not strict neutrality, he withdrew Belgium from its defensive alliance with France and from the Pact of Locarno (Locarno, Pact of)—a peace agreement among Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, and Great Britain—after German occupation of the Rhineland (1936). Determined to resist aggression with help from Britain and France, he sponsored construction of a fortified defense line from Antwerp to Namur, facing Germany.

      With the outbreak of World War II, Leopold assumed supreme command of the Belgian Army and surrendered his encircled forces on May 28, 1940, 18 days after the German invasion began. The Belgian government's repudiation of his decision to surrender and to remain with his troops, rather than join the London government in exile, laid the foundation for the postwar conflict over his claim to the throne. He was held prisoner by the Germans at his royal château near Brussels until 1944 and then in Austria to the end of the war. His letter to Adolf Hitler in 1942 is credited with saving an estimated 500,000 Belgian women and children from deportation to munitions factories in Germany. He married Mary-Lilian Baels on Sept. 11, 1941, whom he made princesse de Réthy; their children were Alexandre, Marie-Christine, and Maria Esmeralda.

      After his brother Charles had been appointed regent in 1944, Leopold remained in Switzerland (1945–50), awaiting resolution of the “royal question,” the controversy over his pending return to the throne. In a plebiscite held March 12, 1950, nearly 58 percent of the voters favoured the King's return, largely reflecting Catholic Fleming support. But unrest fomented by Liberal, Socialist, and Walloon opposition led Leopold to renounce his sovereignty on Aug. 11, 1950, in favour of his son Baudouin, who became king the following year. Leopold and the princess de Réthy continued to live in Laeken, however, the traditional home of Belgian kings, until his son's marriage in 1969. Critics of Leopold had felt that his residence in Laeken gave him too much influence over King Baudouin.

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Universalium. 2010.