/lay ohn"/; Sp. /le awn"/, n.1. a province in NW Spain: formerly a kingdom. 598,721; 5936 sq. mi. (15,375 sq. km).2. the capital of this province. 105,235.3. a city in W Guanajuato, in central Mexico. 557,000.4. a city in W Nicaragua: the former capital. 205,265.
* * *IMedieval kingdom, northwestern Spain.the adjacent areas of Vallodolid and Palencia being disputed with Castile, originally its eastern frontier. It began as a Christian kingdom in the early 10th century when García I established his court on a former Roman legion campsite. Its rulers lost ground to the Moors during the 10th century but reconquered much territory in the 11th century. From 1037 to 1157 it was united with the kingdom of Castile, but it then regained its independence and was ruled by its own kings. It was permanently reunited with Castile in 1230. The modern autonomous community of Castile-León covers roughly the same area.II(as used in expressions)Alberti Leon BattistaBeiderbecke Leon BixCooper Leon NeilDe Leon DanielMagnes Judah LeonMurphy Audie LeonThurstone Louis LeonTrotsky LeonMyron Leon Wallace
* * *▪ medieval kingdom, SpainSpanish León,medieval Spanish kingdom. Leon proper included the cities of León, Salamanca, and Zamora—the adjacent areas of Vallodolid and Palencia being disputed with Castile, originally its eastern frontier. The kings of Leon ruled Galicia, Asturias, and much of the county of Portugal before Portugal gained independence about 1139.The rise of the medieval Leonese kingdom began with García I (909–914), who set up his court on the site of the former Roman permanent camp of the Legio VII Gemina, abandoning the former Asturian capital at Oviedo (see Asturias). The period of Leonese hegemony in Christian Spain nominally lasted until the death of Alfonso VII (1157), but it had, long before, been seriously undermined by the conquests of Sancho III Garcés the Great (1000–35) of Navarre and by the elevation, on his death, of Castile from county to kingdom. During the 10th century, when the caliphate of Córdoba was at its most powerful, Leon lost ground in the struggle with the Moors (Moor), and its kings often had to accept a de facto submission to the caliphs. Leon, however, had inherited from the Asturian monarchy a strong attachment to Visigothic tradition, and its rulers, sometimes taking the title of emperor or king of all Spain, furthered the Reconquest wherever possible.The second period in Leonese history runs from 1157 to 1230, when the kingdom was ruled, in separation from Castile, by its own kings, Ferdinand II (1157–88) and Alfonso IX (1188–1230). Relations with Castile were rarely friendly, but Leon was a stable political entity during this time and won notable victories over the Moors in Leonese Extremadura. After the final union with Castile (1230), Leonese political and administrative institutions were, for a time, maintained, and the records of the Cortes show that some sense of the separate identity of Leon survived into the first half of the 14th century.During the first century of its existence, there was a large influx of Mozarabic immigrants into Leon. These introduced strong Arabic linguistical and cultural influences into the kingdom. Modern Spanish historiography—concerned often to justify medieval Castilian separatism—has tended to portray medieval Leon as an archaizing, Byzantine type of state overready to compromise with the Moors. The evidence for this is not wholly convincing. Leon successfully bore the brunt of the caliphate's attacks and seems to have been the first Peninsular kingdom to evolve popular parliamentary institutions.The modern provinces of León, Salamanca, and Zamora, roughly coterminous with the medieval kingdom, were incorporated after 1979 into the comunidad autónoma (“autonomous community”) of Castile-León (q.v.).
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
León — puede referirse a: Contenido 1 Animales 2 Geografía 2.1 En Argentina 2.2 En España 2.3 En Francia … Wikipedia Español
Leon — Leon, Léon oder León ist: ein Vorname, siehe Leon (Vorname) Leon, Léon oder León ist der Name folgender geografischer Objekte: Königreich León, ein mittelalterliches Königreich, Spanien Provinz León, eine Provinz in der autonomen spanischen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Leon — Leon, Léon or León may refer to: Places United States * Towns and cities ** Leon, Iowa ** Leon, Kansas ** Leon, New York ** Leon, Oklahoma ** Leon, West Virginia * Counties and Townships ** Wisconsin: *** Leon, Monroe County, Wisconsin *** Leon,… … Wikipedia
Leon — Léon Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Léon est un nom propre qui peut désigner une personne ou un lieu : Sommaire 1 Noms de lieux 1.1 France … Wikipédia en Français
León — Léon Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Léon est un nom propre qui peut désigner une personne ou un lieu : Sommaire 1 Noms de lieux 1.1 France … Wikipédia en Français
Léon M'Ba — Léon Mba Léon Mba Représentation de Léon Mba située sur le carrefour Mba à Port Gentil Nationalité Gabonaise Naissance 9 février 1902 à … Wikipédia en Français
Léon M'ba — Léon Mba Léon Mba Représentation de Léon Mba située sur le carrefour Mba à Port Gentil Nationalité Gabonaise Naissance 9 février 1902 à … Wikipédia en Français
Leon — • Provides history and geography of the area Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Leon Leon † … Catholic encyclopedia
León — • Suffragan of Michoacan in Mexico, erected in 1863 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Leon Leon … Catholic encyclopedia
LEÓN — LEÓN, capital of the ancient kingdom of León, Spain. The community of León was one of the oldest in Christian Spain, outside Catalonia. The earliest sources date back to the tenth century. The Jews engaged in real estate and commerce. The Jewish… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Leon X — Léon X Pour les articles homonymes, voir Jean de Médicis. Léon X Pape de l’Église catholique romaine … Wikipédia en Français