- Leo XII
(Annibale Francesco della Genga)1760-1829, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1823-29.
* * *▪ popeoriginal name Annibale Sermattei Della Gengaborn Aug. 22, 1760, near Spoleto, Papal Statesdied Feb. 10, 1829, Romepope from 1823 to 1829.Ordained in 1783, Della Genga became private secretary to Pope Pius VI, who in 1793 sent him as ambassador to Lucerne, Switz. In 1794 he was appointed ambassador to Cologne, subsequently being entrusted with missions to several German courts. Pope Pius VII created him cardinal bishop of Senigallia in 1816 (which office he resigned in 1818) and vicar general of Rome in 1820.Against Austria's opposition, Della Genga was elected pope on Sept. 28, 1823, by the influential zelanti (i.e., conservatives who objected to Pius VII's conciliatory policies and to Cardinal Ercole Consalvi's reforming liberalism). Under Leo, authoritarianism and aristocratic privilege were reinstated in the Papal States, a reaction that caused the bourgeoisie to resent a “government by priests.” Although he reduced expenditure, thus reducing taxation, the precarious economic situation remained unchanged. In doctrinal matters, Leo strove to prevent the infiltration of liberal ideas and to strengthen the efficiency of the Inquisition. Thus, as was expected, he reversed Pius VII's policies.In the Papal States, Leo pursued a repressive policy while endeavouring to reorganize financial administration, but other governments opposed his foreign policies, thus effecting a political change. After some clumsy moves inspired by the zelanti, he recognized the need for moderation in view of the new outbreak of liberal propaganda and the revival of Gallicanism, an essentially French ecclesiastical doctrine advocating restriction of papal power. Following Consalvi's moderate lines, he negotiated concordats advantageous to the papacy with Hanover (1824) and with The Netherlands (1827). He condemned (May 1825) indifferentism, a doctrine advocating the equality of all religions, and Freemasonry, because of its secret practices that he considered pagan. That year he also revived the practice of holding jubilees, periodic observances in which all the faithful are invited to prayer and works of charity and penance for the sanctification of themselves and the world. After some hesitation he formally recognized (1827) the reorganized Hispanic dioceses; he had resisted because Spain demanded royal patronage in the Latin-American colonies.Additional ReadingOwen Chadwick, The Popes and the European Revolution (1981).
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Leo XII. — Leo XII. Wappen Leos XII … Deutsch Wikipedia
Leo XII — Pope Leo XII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Leo XII (ANNIBALE FRANCESCO CLEMENTE MELCHIORE GIROLAMO NICOLA DELLA GENGA) Born at the Castello della Genga in the territory of Spoleto, 22 August, 1760; died in Rome, 10 February, 1829 … Catholic encyclopedia
Leo XII — (Annibale Francesco della Genga) 1760 1829, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1823 29 … Useful english dictionary
Leo XII, Pope — • Born at the Castello della Genga in the territory of Spoleto, 22 August, 1760; died in Rome, 10 February, 1829 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Leo XII — Infobox pope English name = Leo XII birth name = Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola della Genga term start = September 28, 1823 term end = February 10, 1829 predecessor = Pius VII successor = Pius VIII birth date = birth… … Wikipedia
Liste der Kardinalskreierungen Leo XII. — Im Verlaufe seines Pontifikates kreierte Papst Leo XII. 25 Kardinäle in acht Konsistorien. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 5. März 1824 2 27. September 1824 3 20. Dezember 1824 4 21. März 1825 5 13. März 182 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pope Leo XII — Pope Leo XII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Leo XII (ANNIBALE FRANCESCO CLEMENTE MELCHIORE GIROLAMO NICOLA DELLA GENGA) Born at the Castello della Genga in the territory of Spoleto, 22 August, 1760; died in Rome, 10 February, 1829 … Catholic encyclopedia
List of encyclicals of Pope Leo XII — This article contains a list of Encyclicals of Pope Leo XII. Leo XII issued 4 Papal Encyclicals during his reign as Pope … Wikipedia
Ubi primum (Leo XII.) — Ubi primum ist die Antrittsenzyklika des Papstes Leo XII. vom 5. Mai 1824, er beschreibt in ihr seine Gedanken anlässlich der Übernahme seines Pontifikates. An das Beispiel seines großen Vorgängers, Leos des Großen (440–461), der in Demut sein… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Leo I. — Leo ist ein männlicher Vorname, griechisch Leon, Λέων. Er ist ebenfalls die Kurzform verschiedener Vornamen, die dieses Element beinhalten: männlich als Kurzform von Leopold, Leon(h)ard, Leonid oder Leas weiblich als Kurzform von Leontina,… … Deutsch Wikipedia