leafhopper


leafhopper
/leef"hop'euhr/, n.
any of numerous leaping, homopterous insects of the family Cicadellidae that suck plant juices, many being serious crop pests. Also called jassid.
[1850-55, Amer.; LEAF + HOPPER]

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Any of the small, slender, often beautifully coloured and marked sap-sucking insects of the large family Cicadellidae.

There is a leafhopper species for almost every type of plant. Most are less than 0.5 in. (12 mm) long. Leafhoppers can be serious economic pests. Their feeding may remove sap, destroy chlorophyll, transmit disease, or curl leaves; they also puncture the host plant while laying eggs. Hopperburn is a diseased condition caused by their injection of a toxin into the plant as they feed.

Red-banded leafhopper (Graphocephala)

Stephen Collins
Photo Researchers/EB Inc.

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insect
 any of the small, slender, often beautifully coloured and marked sap-sucking insects of the large family Cicadellidae (Jassidae) of the order Homoptera. They are found on almost all types of plants; however, individual species are host specific. Although a single leafhopper does no damage to a plant, collectively they can be serious economic pests. Their feeding may injure the plant in any of several ways: by removing sap, destroying chlorophyll, transmitting diseases, or curling leaves. The host plant is also punctured during egg laying.

      Most leafhoppers are several millimetres long; some may grow to 15 mm (0.6 inch). They excrete honeydew, a sweet by-product of digestion, and are responsible for hopperburn, a diseased condition caused by the insects' injection of a toxin into the plant as they feed. Control is by contact insecticides. Common types of leafhoppers include the following:

      The apple leafhopper (Empoasca maligna) causes apple foliage to pale and become specked with white spots. The adult insects are greenish white, and they are host specific for either apple or rose. There is one generation per year.

      The beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus) is the carrier of a viral disease known as “curly top” that curls sugar beet leaves and stunts plant growth. The adults are pale green or yellow and are about 3 mm (0.1 inch) long. There are three or more generations per year. In addition, beet leafhoppers infect tomato, cantaloupe, cucumber, spinach, and other garden plants.

      The grape leafhopper (Erythroneura) is a slender yellow-coloured insect with red markings and is about 3 mm long. It feeds on developing leaves and overwinters among fallen grape leaves. It is found on the grapevine, Virginia creeper, and apple tree and is controlled by spraying or dusting.

      The potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) is a destructive potato pest that causes that plant's leaves to turn brown and curl; the insect plugs the plant's xylem and phloem vessels, thus interfering with the transportation of food products. Adult potato leafhoppers are green with white spots on the head and thorax and are about 3 mm long. Instead of hibernating in the north, they overwinter on legumes in warm climates. This insect carries viral diseases and infects beans and apples as well as potatoes.

      The rose leafhopper (Edwardsiana rosae) is a serious rose and apple pest. It is creamy white to light yellow in colour and is about 3 mm long. It overwinters in the egg stage and produces two generations per year. It does not cause hopperburn.

      The six-spotted leafhopper (Macrosteles fascifrons) is greenish yellow with six black spots. It produces several generations per year. It infects asters and other garden plants and transmits aster yellow virus, which causes excessive branching, stunted growth, and foliage to turn yellow.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • leafhopper — ☆ leafhopper [lēf′häp΄ər ] n. any of a family (Cicadellidae) of homopteran insects that leap from one plant to another, sucking the juices and often transmitting plant diseases …   English World dictionary

  • Leafhopper — Leafhoppers Adult two lined gum treehopper (Eurymeloides bicincta: Eurymelinae) demonstrating a symbiotic relationship with meat ants Scientific classification Kingdom …   Wikipedia

  • leafhopper — noun Date: 1841 any of a family (Cicadellidae) of small leaping homopterous insects that suck the juices of plants …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • leafhopper — n. any of a number of hopping insects that suck the juices of plants …   English contemporary dictionary

  • leafhopper — noun a small plant bug which leaps when disturbed. [Family Cicadellidae.] …   English new terms dictionary

  • leafhopper — leaf•hop•per [[t]ˈlifˌhɒp ər[/t]] n. ent any of numerous slender, sap sucking homopterous insects, of the family Cicadellidae, that leap from leaf to leaf, sometimes spreading plant diseases • Etymology: 1850–55, amer …   From formal English to slang

  • leafhopper — /ˈlifhɒpə/ (say leefhopuh) noun any of the leaping homopterous insects of the family Cicadellidae, including many crop pests …   Australian English dictionary

  • leafhopper —    Ūmi ikō …   English-Hawaiian dictionary

  • leafhopper — n. any homopterous insect of the family Cicadellidae, which sucks the sap of plants and often causes damage and spreads disease …   Useful english dictionary

  • Common brown leafhopper — Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum …   Wikipedia


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