Khalkha


Khalkha
/kal"keuh/, n.
a Mongolian language that is the official language of the Mongolian People's Republic and the chief vernacular of the eastern half of the country.

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people
      largest group of the Mongol peoples, constituting more than 80 percent of the population of Mongolia. The Khalkha dialect is the official language of Mongolia. It is understood by 90 percent of the country's population as well as by many Mongols elsewhere.

      Traditionally, the Khalkha were a nomadic, pastoral people. Under Genghis Khan and his successors, they became a warlike imperial nation. In later centuries they were squeezed between the expanding empires of the Russians and the Manchu. The eastern Khalkha submitted to the Manchu, became part of China, and today inhabit the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Beginning in the 1920s, the western Khalkha came increasingly under the influence of the Soviet Union.

      The old Khalkha society was based on kinship traced through the paternal line and was organized in clans and tribes. Leadership was determined on the basis of ability. Married sons often lived near their fathers and other male relatives. A class of nobility was set apart from the commoners. Under Manchu dominance the importance of kin groups declined, giving way to Chinese methods of civil administration.

      Traditionally, most Khalkha lived in mobile herding camps that were moved four or five times a year from one pasturage to another. Communist attempts to collectivize the nomads and to increase the production of livestock met with considerable resistance. In the 1990s more than half of the population lived in urban areas, notably in Ulaanbaatar.

      The traditional Khalkha dwelling was the circular felt tent erected on a collapsible lattice frame. This structure—called a ger or (in Turkic languages) a yurt, or yurta—is readily disassembled and transported. In the late 20th century it was still a common form of housing in Ulaanbaatar, where population growth outpaced the construction of apartment buildings. Food consists almost entirely of meat, milk, and other animal products. The most popular drink is fermented mare's milk, or airag, called kumys in Russian (koumiss).

       shamanism was the basis of indigenous belief among the Khalkha until the 17th century, when Tibetan Buddhism was introduced. In the early 20th century the Buddhist monasteries of Mongolia had great power and wealth, but by the 1960s most of them had been closed or converted to other uses. Since 1990 interest in Buddhism has grown once again.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • KHALKHA — Ethnie principale de la République mongole (qui s’est appelée successivement Mongolie Extérieure puis république populaire de Mongolie), les Khalkha (ou Qalq a, ou Xalx) étaient estimés à 1 777 730 en 1993, ce qui représente 78,8 p. 100 de la… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Khalkha —   [ xalxa], Gruppe der Mongolen, Chalcha …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Khalkha — [kal′kə] n. 1. a member of a people of Mongolia 2. the Mongolian language of this people, the official language of Mongolia …   English World dictionary

  • Khalkha — The Khalkha, or Halh (Classical Mongolian: qalq a , Khalkha Mongolian mn. Халх IPA| [χɑɬχ] ) are a subgroup of the Mongols. They comprise the majority of the population of the independent state of Mongolia. The standard language of Mongolia is… …   Wikipedia

  • Khalkha — Khalkhas  Cet article concerne le peuple khalkha. Pour la langue khalkha, voir Mongol. Les Khalkhas (en mongol classique qalq a, en khalkha Халх) sont un sous groupe des Mongols, dont fait partie la majorité de la population de la Mongolie.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Khalkha — Khalka Khalka, Khalkha Khalkha . the dialect of Mongolian that is the official language of the Mongolian People s Republic. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Khalkha — noun Date: 1873 1. a member of a Mongol people of Outer Mongolia 2. the language of the Khalkha people used as the official language of the country of Mongolia …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Khalkha — /ˈkælkə/ (say kalkuh) noun 1. a traditionally nomadic people inhabiting the Mongolian People s Republic. 2. (plural Khalkha or Khalkhas) a member of this people. 3. their language, a dialect of Mongolian. –adjective 4. of or relating to this… …   Australian English dictionary

  • Khalkha — noun 1. the Mongol people living in the central and eastern parts of Outer Mongolia • Syn: ↑Khalka, ↑Kalka • Hypernyms: ↑Mongol, ↑Mongolian 2. the language of the Khalkha that is the official language of the Mongolian People s Republic • Syn: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Khalkha — Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit dem Volk Chalcha, zur Sprache siehe Mongolische Sprache, zum gleichnamigen Fluss siehe Chalcha (Fluss). Die Chalcha Mongolen sind mit etwa 70% der Bevölkerung die dominierende ethnische Gruppe in der unabhängigen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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