Kazan


Kazan
/keuh zan", -zahn"/; for 2 also Russ. /ku zahn"/, n.
1. Elia /i luy"euh, eel"yeuh/, born 1909, U.S. film and stage director and novelist, born in Turkey.
2. a city in and capital of the Tatar Autonomous Republic in the SE Russian Federation in Europe, near the Volga River. 993,000.

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City (pop., 2001 est.: 1,090,200), capital of the Tatarstan republic, western Russia.

Located at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka rivers, it was founded in the 13th century by Mongols of the Golden Horde; it became the capital of an independent khanate in the 15th century. In 1552 Ivan IV (the Terrible) captured Kazan and subjugated the khanate. The city was burned in a revolt (1773–74), but after its reconstruction it grew in importance as a trading centre, and by the beginning of the 20th century it was one of the chief manufacturing cities of Russia.

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Russia
      capital city, Tatarstan republic, western Russia. It lies just north of the Samara Reservoir on the Volga River, where it is joined by the Kazanka River. The city stretches for about 15 miles (25 km) along hills, which are much dissected by ravines.

      Ancient Kazan (Iske Kazan) was founded in the late 13th century by the Mongols (Tatars) of the Golden Horde after their overthrow of the Bulgar kingdom on the middle Volga. It was located about 28 miles (45 km) upstream on the Kazanka and was transferred to the mouth of the river at the end of the 14th century. After the disintegration of the Golden Horde in the 15th century, Kazan became the capital of an independent khanate. It developed as an important trading centre; annual fairs were held on an island in the Volga. In 1469 Ivan III captured Kazan, but his puppet khan organized a massacre of all Russians in the town in 1504. Finally in 1552 Ivan IV the Terrible captured Kazan after a long siege and subjugated the khanate. The old Tatar fortress was rebuilt as a Russian kremlin, the white walls and towers of which survive as a feature of the modern skyline. Kazan was seized in a revolt of 1773–74, and much of the city was burned to the ground; Catherine II the Great rebuilt it on a gridiron pattern. The Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul dates from the 18th century.

      As Siberia was opened up, Kazan's trading importance greatly increased, and industry developed in the 18th century; by 1900 it was one of the chief manufacturing cities of Russia. In its wide range of industries, some long-established ones still flourish on a large scale: soapmaking, leatherworking, shoemaking, and fur preparation. New industries include oil refining, electrical and precision engineering, and chemical production. Linen and foodstuffs are also produced. In 1920 Kazan became the capital of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (now Tatarstan, Russia).

      Kazan is a major cultural and educational centre. Kazan State University was founded in 1804. The mathematician N.I. Lobachevsky was its rector in 1827–46, and among those who studied there were Leo Tolstoy (Tolstoy, Leo), the composer M.A. Balakirev, and Vladimir I. Lenin (Lenin, Vladimir Ilich). There is also a branch of the Academy of Sciences, a conservatory, and other institutions of higher education. Kazan has a theatre of Tatar opera and ballet, a philharmonic society, and a noted Tatar museum. Pop. (2006 est.) 1,112,673.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • KAZAN (E.) — Homme de théâtre venu tardivement au cinéma, Elia Kazan s’est cependant imposé comme le cinéaste le plus lyrique (avec Nicholas Ray) du cinéma américain des années d’après guerre; ses héros, indécis, violents, tourmentés, sont parmi les plus… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Kazan — steht für: die tatarische Umschrift der Stadt Kasan in der russischen Republik Tatarstan einen Landkreis in der türkischen Provinz Ankara, siehe Kazan (Türkei) den Namen von Engstellen in/an der Donau, siehe Kazan Engen den Namen eines… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • KAZAN — KAZAN, capital of Tatarstan autonomous republic, in the Russian Federation, an important commercial and industrial center, mainly of the oil industry. Until the 1917 Revolution, Kazan was outside the Jewish pale of settlement . In 1861, 184 Jews… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Kazan — Kazan, Elia Kazan, Escuela de * * * Ciudad (pob., est. 2001: 1.090.200 hab.), capital de la República de Tatarstán, Rusia occidental. Situada en la confluencia de los ríos Volga y Kazanka, fue fundada en el s. XIII por los mongoles de la Horda de …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Kazan — (izg. kazȇn/ob. kazȃn), Elia (pravo ime E. Kazanjoglous) (1909) DEFINICIJA američki filmski i kazališni redatelj, u početku zapažen po kazališnim postavama T. Williamsa i A. Millera, kasnije autor filmskih klasika, u dva navrata dobitnik Oskara… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • kàzan — m 1. {{001f}}razg. reg. a. {{001f}}kotao b. {{001f}}ono što je nalik kazanu ili ima sličnu namjenu [rakijski ∼] c. {{001f}}lonac 2. {{001f}}geogr. mjesto u koritu potoka ili rijeke kad presuši, gdje se zadržala voda i gdje je moguće napojiti… …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika

  • kȃzan — ž 〈I i/kȃžnju〉 ekspr. kazna [∼ Božja] …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika


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