Kalam


Kalam
Kalamist, n.
/keuh lahm"/, n. Islam.
1. (sometimes l.c.) a school of philosophical theology originating in the 9th century A.D., asserting the existence of God as a prime mover and the freedom of the will.
2. the word of Allah.
[ < Ar kalam lit., talk]

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Islamic speculative theology.

It arose during the Umayyad dynasty over varying interpretations of the Qurān and over questions the Qurʾān provoked, including those on predestination, free will, and the nature of God. The most prominent early school was the 8th-century Mutazilah, which asserted the supremacy of reason, championed free will, and rejected an anthropomorphic characterization of God. The 10th-century school of Ashariyyah moved kalām back toward traditional faith, accepting, for example, the eternal, uncreated nature of the Qurʾān and its literal truth. The school also represented the successful adaptation of Hellenistic philosophical reasoning to Muslim orthodox theology.

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Islam
      in Islām, speculative theology. The term is derived from the phrase kalām Allāh (Arabic: “word of God”), which refers to the Qurʾān, the sacred scripture of Islām. Those who practice kalām are known as mutakallimūn.

      In its early stage, kalām was merely a defense of Islām against Christians, Manichaeans, and believers in other religions. As interest in philosophy grew among Muslim thinkers, kalām adopted the dialectic (methodology) of the Greek skeptics and the stoics and directed these against the Islāmic philosophers who attempted to fit Aristotle and Plato into a Muslim context.

      Several schools of kalām developed. The most significant was the Muʿtazilah, often described as the rationalists of Islām, who appeared in the 8th century. They believed in the autonomy of reason with regard to revelation and in the supremacy of reasoned (ʿaqlī) faith against traditional (naqlī) faith. The Muʿtazilah championed the freedom of the human will, holding that it was against divine justice either to punish a good man or pardon an unrighteous one. The Ashʿarīyah, a 10th-century school of kalām, was a mediation between the rationalization of the Muʿtazilah and the anthropomorphism of the traditionalists and represented the successful adaptation of Hellenistic philosophical reasoning to Muslim orthodox theology. They too affirmed the freedom of the human will but denied its efficacy. Closely resembling but more liberal than the Ashʿarīyah was the al-Māturīdīyah (also 10th-century).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • KALĀM — KALĀM, meaning ʿilm al kalām (the science of Kalām), is one of the branches of Islamic religious science. The common use of the word kalām is word, words, or speech. The koran is called kalām Allāh, i.e., the speech of God, and so, it was… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Kalam — Kalām ( ar. علم الكلام) is the Islamic philosophy of seeking Islamic theological principles through dialectic. In Arabic the word literally means speech . A scholar of kalam is referred to as a mutakallim (Muslim theologian; plural mutakallimiin… …   Wikipedia

  • Kalam — (علم الكلم) es una de las «ciencias religiosas» del Islam. En árabe la palabra quiere decir «el discurso», y se refiere a la tradición islámica de buscar principios teológicos a través de la dialéctica. El término por lo general es traducido …   Wikipedia Español

  • KALAM — KAL M L’expression arabe kal m (‘ilm al kal m ), dans l’islam, signifie la science de la parole, notion désignée aussi par ‘ilm u ル l ad d 稜n , science des bases de la religion (ou par al fi ャh al akbar , qui s’oppose à al fi ャh al a ルgh r , la… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • kalam — KALÁM s.n. 1. (Cult. islam.) Pană ascuţită de scris cu cerneală; calamus3. 2. (Teolog. islam.) Denumire a unei teologii fundate în secolele VIII IX e.n., influenţată, în principal, de către şcolile teologice (rivale) ale mutaziliţilor (mutazilit) …   Dicționar Român

  • Kalam — (türk.), 1) Rohr zum Schreiben; 2) Kanzlei …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Kalâm — (arab.), Rede. K. iScherif (die heilige Rede) und K. Ullah (Wort Gottes) sind bei den Muslimen gleichbedeutend mit Koran (s. d.). Mit Ilm i K. (oder kurz K.) wird in der religiösen Terminologie der Muslimen die im 2. Jahrh. des Islam entstandene… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Kalam — Kalam, Landschaft im mittlern Sudân, nördlich vom Binuë, zwischen Bornu und Sokoto, letzterm tributpflichtig, ein schönes wiesenreiches Bergland, bewohnt von den herrschenden Fulbe, Kanuri und den einheimischen Tangale, Fall und Bele, die sich in …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Kalam — Kălăm (Mehrz. Kelâm, arab., aus lat. calămus), Schreibrohr …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Kalam [2] — Kalam, Gebirgsgegend im NW. Afrikas, nördlich vom obern Binue (Nordnigeria); Hauptstadt Gombe, 20.000 E …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Kalâm — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Kalam.  Pour l’article homophone, voir Qalam. Kalām (Discussion en arabe, perse: كلام) est une des sciences religieus …   Wikipédia en Français


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