/keuh bear"/, n.fl. late 15th century, Hindu religious reformer.
* * *died 1518, MagharIndian mystic and poet.A weaver who lived in Benares, he preached the essential oneness of all religions and was critical of both Hinduism and Islam for meaningless rites and mindless repetition. From Hinduism he accepted the ideas of reincarnation and the law of karma but rejected idolatry, asceticism, and the caste system. From Islam he accepted the idea of one God and the equality of all men. Revered by both Hindus and Muslims, he is also considered a forerunner of Sikhism, and some of his poetry was incorporated into the Adi Granth. His ideas led to the founding of several sects, including the Kabir Panth, which regards Kabir as its principal guru or as a divinity.
* * *▪ Indian mystic and poetborn 1440, Varanasi, Jaunpur, Indiadied 1518, MagharThe birth of Kabīr (Arabic: “Great”) remains to this day shrouded in mystery and legend. Authorities disagree on both when he was born and who his parents were. One legend proclaims a divine virginal birth. His mother was reputed to have been of the Brahman caste and to have become pregnant after a visit to a Hindu shrine. Because she was unwed, she abandoned Kabīr, who was found and adopted by a Muslim weaver. That his early life began as a Muslim there is no doubt, although he later became influenced by a Hindu ascetic, Ramananda.Though Kabīr is often depicted in modern times as a harmonizer of Hindu and Muslim belief and practice, it would be more accurate to say that he was equally critical of both, often conceiving them as parallel to one another in their misguided ways. In his view, the mindless, repetitious, prideful habit of declaiming scripture could be visited alike on the sacred Hindu texts, the Vedas, or the Islamic holy book, the Qurʾān; the religious authorities doing so could be Brahmins or Qāzīs; meaningless rites of initiation could focus either on the sacred thread or on circumcision. What really counted for Kabīr was utter fidelity to the one deathless truth of life, which he associated equally with the designations Allah (Allāh) and Ram—the latter understood as a general Hindu name for the divine, not the hero of the Ramayana (Rāmāyaṇa). Kabīr's principal media of communication were songs called padas and rhymed couplets (dohas) sometimes called “words” (shabdas) or “witnesses” (sakhis). A number of these couplets, and others attributed to Kabīr since his death, have come to be commonly used by speakers of north Indian languages.Kabīr's poetic personality has been variously defined by the religious traditions that revere him, and the same can be said for his hagiography. For Sikhs he is a precursor and interlocutor of Nanak (Nānak), the founding Sikh Guru (Gurū) (spiritual guide). Muslims place him in Sufi lineages, and for Hindus he becomes a Vaishnava (devotee of the god Vishnu) with universalist leanings. But when one goes back to the poetry that can most reliably be attributed to Kabīr, only two aspects of his life emerge as truly certain: he lived most of his life in Banaras (now Varanasi), and he was a weaver (julaha), one of a low-ranked caste that had become largely Muslim in Kabīr's time. His humble social station and his own combative reaction to any who would regard it as such have contributed to his celebrity among various other religious movements and helped shape the Kabīr Panth, a sect found across north and central India that draws its members especially but not exclusively from the scheduled castes (formerly known as untouchables). The Kabīr Panth regards Kabir as its principal guru or even as a divinity—truth incarnate. The broad range of traditions on which Kabīr has had an impact is testimony to his massive authority, even for those whose beliefs and practices he criticized so unsparingly. From early on, his presence in anthologies of north Indian bhakti (devotional) poetry is remarkable.
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Kabir — Kabîr Religions Védisme Brahmanisme Hindouisme Ajîvika Jaïnisme … Wikipédia en Français
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KABIR — Kab 稜r est l’un des noms les plus fameux et les plus révérés dans toute la tradition indienne. Du Pendjab au Bengale et des frontières hymalayennes à l’Inde méridionale, il est connu comme poète, mystique et réformateur religieux par les hindous… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Kabir — Kabir, indischer Mystiker und Dichter, * Benares (heute Varanasi) um 1440, ✝ Maghar (Uttar Pradesh) 1518; bemühte sich, Hindus und Muslime zu versöhnen. Zu seinen Anhängern, den Kabirpanthis (»Nachfolger Kabirs«), gehörte Dadu Dayal. Kabirs… … Universal-Lexikon
Kabir — Al Kabir the Great is also one of the 99 names of God in Islam. For a complete disambiguation page, see Kabir (disambiguation) Kabīr (also Kabīra) (Hindi: कबीर, Punjabi: ਕਬੀਰ, Urdu: کبير (1398 mdash;1448) [ This date is now universally accepted… … Wikipedia
Kabir — (fl. ca. 1450) Kabir was a northern Indian poet and mystic, one of the most influential poet saints of the bhakti movement a spiritual movement that became popular in India between the 12th and 18th centuries. The bhakti focused on a… … Encyclopedia of medieval literature
Kabir — (c. 15th century) medieval Hindi saint poet Kabir, a poor, illiterate man, was one of the great saint poets of northern India. He is revered by Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs, although his work includes much social and religious criticism of… … Encyclopedia of Hinduism