Jugurtha


Jugurtha
Jugurthine /jooh gerr"thin, -thuyn/, adj.
/jooh gerr"theuh/, n.
died 104 B.C., king of Numidia 113-104.

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born с 160 BC
died 104, Rome

Ruler of the North African kingdom of Numidia under the Romans (118–105 BC).

After the death of his uncle Micipsa, then ruler of Numidia, Jugurtha shared rule with his two cousins. He had one killed and captured the capital city of the other. Rome intervened with troops, which Jugurtha successfully outwitted until he was captured in 105 BC. See also Gaius Marius; Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix.

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▪ king of Numidia
born c. 160 BC
died 104, Rome

      king of Numidia from 118 to 105, who struggled to free his North African kingdom from Roman rule.

      Jugurtha was the illegitimate grandson of Masinissa (d. 148), under whom Numidia had become a Roman ally, and the nephew of Masinissa's successor, Micipsa. Jugurtha became so popular among the Numidians that Micipsa tried to eliminate his influence by sending him in 134 to assist the Roman general Scipio Africanus the Younger in the siege of Numantia (Spain). Jugurtha, however, established close relations with Scipio, who was the hereditary patron of Numidia and who probably persuaded Micipsa to adopt Jugurtha in 120.

      After Micipsa's death in 118, Jugurtha shared the rule of Numidia with Micipsa's two sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal, the first of whom Jugurtha assassinated. When Adherbal was attacked by Jugurtha, he fled to Rome for aid—Rome's approval being required for any change in the government of Numidia. A senatorial commission divided Numidia, with Jugurtha taking the less-developed western half and Adherbal the richer eastern half. Trusting in his influence at Rome, Jugurtha again attacked Adherbal (112), capturing his capital at Cirta and killing him. During the sack of Cirta, a number of Italian traders were also slain. Popular anger in Rome at this action forced the Senate to declare war on Jugurtha, but in 111 the consul Lucius Calpurnius Bestia made a generous settlement with him. Summoned to Rome to explain how he had managed to obtain the treaty, Jugurtha was silenced by a tribune of the plebs. He then had a potential rival killed in the capital, and even the best of his Roman friends could no longer support him.

      When war was renewed, Jugurtha easily maintained himself against incompetent generals. Early in 110 he forced the capitulation of a whole army under Aulus Postumius Albinus and drove the Romans out of Numidia. Antisenatorial feeling caused the terms of this surrender to be disavowed by Rome, and fighting again broke out. One of the consuls for 109, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus (Metellus Numidicus, Quintus Caecilius), won several battles but did not drive Jugurtha to surrender. After the arrival of a new consul, Gaius Marius, in 107, Jugurtha continued to achieve successes through guerrilla warfare. Bocchus I of Mauretania, however, encouraged by Marius' quaestor, Lucius Cornelius Sulla (Sulla, Lucius Cornelius), trapped the Numidian king and turned him over to the Romans early in 105. He was executed the following year.

      In vigour and resource he was a worthy grandson of Masinissa but lacked his political insight. Misled by signs of corruption in the Roman governing class, he failed to realize that there were limits beyond which Rome's satellite rulers could not go without provoking decisive intervention. The Jugurthine War gave Marius the excuse to reform the army by recruiting soldiers who were not property owners. As the Roman historian Sallust's monograph The Jugurthine War makes clear, the Senate's handling of Jugurtha, characterized by a mixture of corruption and incompetence, led to the loss of public confidence, which was an important factor in the eventual fall of the Roman Republic.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Jugurtha — (* etwa 160 v. Chr.; † 104 v. Chr.) war König der numidischen Massylier. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Frühe Jahre 2 Machtübernahme 3 Krieg mit Rom 4 Niederla …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jugurtha — Jugurtha, Sohn Manastabals u. Enkel des Massinissa, wurde bei seinem Oheim Micipsa mit dessen Söhnen Adherbal u. Hiempsal erzogen u. mit denselben von Micipsa zu Erben seines Reiches Numidien eingesetzt Nach Micipsas Tode ließ J. den Hiempsal… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Jugurtha — Jugurtha, König von Numidien, natürlicher Sohn des Mastanabal, eines Sohnes des Königs Masinissa, erhielt durch die Gunst seines Oheims Micipsa dieselbe fürstliche Erziehung wie dessen eigne Kinder und wurde von ihm förmlich adoptiert und zum… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jugurtha — Jugurtha, König von Numidien, Sohn des Mastanabal, wurde 118 v. Chr. von seinem Oheim Micipsa nebst dessen Söhnen, Adherbal und Hiempsal, zum Erben eingesetzt, ließ diese ermorden, ward als Römerfeind 109 von Metellus beim Fluß Muthul, später von …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jugurtha — Jugurtha, Enkel des Massinissa, ward von seinem Oheim Micipsa neben dessen zwei Söhnen Hiempsal und Adherbal zum 3. Könige Numidiens eingesetzt; er ermordete den einen, vertrieb den andern und wußte es durch sein Gold bei dem röm. Senate, der… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Jugurtha — (v. 160 v. 104 av. J. C.), roi de Numidie. Adversaire des Romains, il fut livré à Sylla, questeur de Marius (105 av. J. C.), et mourut de faim dans un cachot de Rome …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • JUGURTHA — fil. Mastanabalis, fratris Micipsae, ex pellice, nepos Masinislae, Regis Numidarum, quem patruus Moriens heredem regni sui constituit, una cum 2. filiis suis adhuc impuberibus, Adherbale, et Hiemsale: quos ille postea beneficiorum immemor,… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Jugurtha — [jo͞o gʉr′thə] died 104 B.C.; king of Numidia (112? 104 B.C. ) …   English World dictionary

  • Jugurtha — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Jugurtha (homonymie). Jugurtha Jugurtha emprisonné par les Romains …   Wikipédia en Français


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