Jacob ben Asher

Jacob ben Asher
/jay"keuhb ben ash"euhr/
c1269-c1340, Hebrew commentator on the Bible and codifier of Jewish law.

* * *

born 1269?, Cologne?
died 1340?, Toledo, Castile

Jewish legal scholar.

He emigrated to Spain with his family in 1303, and his father became chief rabbi in Toledo. Jacob is believed to have made his living as a moneylender. He divided Jewish law into categories by subject, producing a codification known as Tur, which became a popular Jewish theological work of the 15th century. The basis for many rabbinic decisions, it was considered standard until superseded by the work of Joseph ben Ephraim Karo in the 16th century.

* * *

▪ Spanish scholar
born 1269?, Cologne? [Germany]
died 1340?, Toledo, Castile [Spain]

      Jewish scholar whose codification of Jewish law was considered standard until the publication in 1565 of the Shulḥan ʿarukh (“The Well-Laid Table”) by Joseph Karo.

      Little of certainty is known about Jacob's life. In 1303 he immigrated to Spain with his brothers and father, the great codifier Asher ben Jehiel, who became chief rabbi of Toledo. Although Jacob was eminently qualified, he never became a rabbi. Instead, it is likely that he eked out an existence as a moneylender.

      Jacob is best known for his code Arbaʿa ṭurim (“Four Rows”; first published in its entirety in 1475 and also known as Ṭur), which systematically divided all Jewish law into four “rows,” or classes, a new arrangement that became classic. He is therefore called Baʿal ha-Ṭurim (“Master of the Rows”). His four divisions are: (1) Oraḥ ḥayyim (“Path of Life”), dealing with laws governing prayer and ritual; (2) Yore deʿa (“Teacher of Knowledge”), setting forth the laws concerning things that are permitted or forbidden, such as dietary laws; (3) Even ha-ʿezer (“Stone of Help”), containing the laws governing family relations, such as marriage and divorce; and (4) Ḥoshen mishpaṭ (“Breastplate of Judgment”), epitomizing civil and criminal law. Jacob eliminated all laws and customs that had been rendered obsolete by the destruction of the Second Temple (AD 70).

      Revealing a marked indebtedness to his father's code, Jacob's austere digest became, after the Bible, the most popular work among 15th-century Jews and the usual basis for rabbinic decisions. It departed from his father's code and from that of Maimonides by basing the preponderance of its laws on decisions by post-Talmudic rabbinical authorities rather than on the Talmud itself.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Jacob ben Asher — Jacob ben Asher, in Hebrew Ya akov ben Asher , (1270 ca 1340 (Toledo, Spain [Goldin, Hyman E. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Code of Jewish Law , Forward to the New Edition. (New York: Hebrew Publishing Company, 1961)] ) was an influential Medieval… …   Wikipedia

  • JACOB BEN ASHER — (1270?–1340), halakhic authority. Jacob was the son of asher b. jehiel (the Rosh), under whom he studied. In 1303 he accompanied his father from Germany to Toledo, where he lived in great poverty, shunning rabbinical office and devoting all his… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Jacob ben Asher — Yaakov ben Asher Rabbi Yaakov Ben Asher (1270, Allemagne 1340) est un décisionnaire rabbinique et législateur juif, il est appelé le Baal HaTourim de par son œuvre. Fils de Rabbi Asher ben Yehiel, le Rosh, avec qui il étudia. Il naquit en… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacob ben Asher — (¿1269?, ¿Colonia?–¿1340?, Toledo, Castilla). Gran jurista judío. En 1303 emigró a España con su familia y su padre se convirtió en el gran rabino de Toledo. Se cree que se ganó la vida como prestamista. Dividió la ley judía en categorías… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Jacob ben Asher — /jay keuhb ben ash euhr/ c1269 c1340, Hebrew commentator on the Bible and codifier of Jewish law …   Useful english dictionary

  • Jacob ben Asher (Baal ha-Turim) — (c.1270 c.1343)    Spanish codifier, son of Asher ben Jehiel. He was born in Germany and went with his father to Spain in 1303. He lived first in Barcelona and later in Toledo. His code, Arbaah Turim, contains the decisions found in both versions …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Jacob ben Eléazar de Tolède — est un poète, grammairien et lexicographe hébraïsant du premier tiers du XIIIe siècle. Sommaire 1 Éléments biographiques 2 Œuvres 2.1 Kitab al Kamil …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacob ben Makhir ibn Tibbon — …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacob ben Judah Landau — (d. 1493) (Hebrew: יעקב ברוך בן יהודה לנדא) was a German Italian rabbi and halakhic codifier who lived in the second half of the 15th century. His father was one of the chief authorities on the Talmud in Germany; hundreds of Talmudists, among… …   Wikipedia

  • Jacob Ben Moses Bachrach — (born in Seiny, in the governorate of Suwalki, which is now in Poland, May 9, 1824; died in Bialystok Dec. 29, 1896) was a noted apologist of Rabbinic Judaism. He received his earliest instruction from his grandfather, Judah Bachrach. For years… …   Wikipedia


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»