Jacksonville


Jacksonville
/jak"seuhn vil'/, n.
1. a seaport in NE Florida, on the St. John's River. 540,898.
2. a city in central Arkansas. 27,589.
3. a city in W Illinois. 20,284.
4. a city in SE North Carolina. 17,056.
5. a town in E Texas. 12,264.

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City (pop., 2000: 735,617), northeastern Florida, U.S. It is the site of Florida's first European (French Huguenot) settlement (1564).

Named for Andrew Jackson, it was laid out in 1822 and incorporated in 1832. It was largely destroyed by fire in 1901. In 1968 it was consolidated with most of Duval county; it covers 841 sq mi (2,178 sq km), making it one of the largest U.S. cities in terms of land area. A deepwater port with major shipyards, it is Florida's chief transportation and commercial centre. It is the site of Jacksonville University, the University of North Florida, and Jones College.

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      city, Pulaski county, central Arkansas, U.S., 15 miles (24 km) northeast of Little Rock. The locality was settled before the American Civil War but did not develop until the 1860s, when a local resident, Nicholas Jackson, offered land for a Cairo and Fulton (now Union Pacific (Union Pacific Railroad Company)) Railroad depot. The town, named for him in 1870, became a distribution point for farm produce. The economy diversified after World War II, especially with the dedication of Little Rock Air Force Base, immediately to the north, in 1955. Manufactures include aluminum cookware, construction lasers, wood cabinets, and wallpaper. Inc. 1942. Pop. (1990) 29,101; (2000) 29,916.

 city, seat (1822) of Duval county, northeastern Florida, U.S., the centre of Florida's “First Coast” region. It lies along the St. Johns River (Saint Johns River) near its mouth on the Atlantic Ocean, about 25 miles (40 km) south of the Georgia border. Jacksonville consolidated (1968) with most of Duval county and thereby became one of the nation's largest cities in area (841 square miles [2,178 square km]). The city is the focus of one of the state's most populous urban areas.

      The region was originally inhabited by Timucua peoples. Fort Caroline National Memorial marks the site of Florida's first European (French Huguenot) settlement (1564), which was destroyed by Spanish conquistador Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (Menéndez de Avilés, Pedro) in 1565. The locality was originally known as Wacca Pilatka (derived from a Timucua term meaning “cows' crossing”), which was interpreted as Cowford during the English period (1763–83). The townsite was laid out in 1822, a year after the United States acquired Florida from Spain, and it was named for Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew), who had briefly served as governor of the new territory. Industries such as lumber mills developed, but the city's growth was impeded by the Seminole Wars; it was occupied four times by Union troops during the American Civil War. During Reconstruction it developed as a winter resort and expanded its industry after improvements were made to the harbour, despite a yellow-fever epidemic (1888) and widespread destruction by fire (1901). The waters off Jacksonville were the scene of much German U-boat activity during World War II, including the sinking of a tanker and a brief incursion of German saboteurs in 1942. The city was the nation's busiest military port during the Persian Gulf War (1990–91).

      Jacksonville is an important deepwater port of entry and functions as the state's foremost transportation and commercial centre. It is a major point of wholesale distribution for the southeastern United States, with motor vehicles being one of the most important cargoes. The city is the hub of regional road and rail networks, and its international airport (completed 1968) is one of the busiest in the state. Services, including insurance, health care, and banking, are also major factors in Jacksonville's economy, as is employment at the area's two U.S. naval air stations. Manufactures include contact lenses and paper products; shipbuilding, fishing, and tourism are also important.

      Several beach communities are adjacent to Jacksonville (Mayport, Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, Jacksonville Beach, and Ponte Vedra Beach), and sport fishing is a popular tourist activity. Among the city's cultural institutions are the Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens, the Jacksonville Museum of Contemporary Art, Jacksonville Zoological Gardens, and the Museum of Science and History. Kingsley Plantation on Fort George Island features a restored plantation house and slave cabins. The city also has its own National Football League team, the Jaguars. Big Talbot Island and Little Talbot Island state parks are nearby. The Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve (established 1988) protects an area of 72 square miles (185 square km) of coastal wetlands just north of the St. Johns River, and Guana River State Park is south along the coast. Educational institutions include Edward Waters College (1866), Jacksonville University (1934), Florida Community College at Jacksonville (1966), University of North Florida (1965), Jones College (1918), and the Health Science Center of the University of Florida (Florida, University of). Inc. 1832. Pop. (2000) city, 735,617; Jacksonville MSA, 1,122,750; (2005 est.) city, 782,623; Jacksonville MSA, 1,248,371.

      city, seat (1825) of Morgan county, west-central Illinois, U.S. It lies about 35 miles (55 km) west of Springfield. Laid out in 1825 as the county seat by Johnston Shelton, the county surveyor, and named in honour of U.S. President Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew) (some have also said that the city's name honours a prominent African American preacher named A.W. Jackson), it soon acquired a distinctive educational, institutional, and religious character that it largely retains. Illinois College (founded there in 1829 and affiliated with the Presbyterian church and the United Church of Christ) was the first in the state to graduate a college class (1835) and to open a medical school (1843). Other educational institutions included the Jacksonville Female Academy (1835) and the Athenaeum (1864), both later becoming part of Illinois College. The Illinois Conference Female Academy, established in 1846 as a Methodist school, became MacMurray College for Women in 1930 (renamed to honour a benefactor, James H. MacMurray); the College for Men was added in 1955, and the institution is now MacMurray College. Jacksonville is also home to several state institutions for the care of people with disabilities: the Illinois School for the Deaf (1839), the Jacksonville Developmental Center (1847), and the Illinois School for the Visually Impaired (1849).

      Jacksonville is a trading centre for a rich agricultural area (corn [maize], soybeans, and livestock). Food processing, bookbinding, and the manufacture of amusement park rides, cassettes, and compact discs also contribute to the local economy. Fishing is a popular recreational activity at Mauvaise Terre Lake (adjacent to southeastern Jacksonville) and Lake Jacksonville, 5 miles (8 km) southeast of the city. Inc. 1867. Pop. (1990) 19,324; (2000) 18,940.

      city, seat (1755) of Onslow county, southeastern North Carolina, U.S. It lies along the New River at the head of its estuary, about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Wilmington. Originally settled as Wantland's Ferry (c. 1757), its name was changed to Onslow Courthouse and then Jacksonville in 1842 to honour President Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew). It remained a small hunting and fishing resort until 1941, when the establishment of the U.S. Marine Corps New River Marine Base (now the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune and Marine Corps Air Station New River) 5 miles (8 km) southeast transformed its economy. Coastal Carolina Community College was founded there in 1965. Nearby recreational facilities include Hofmann State Forest (northeast), Croatan National Forest (east), and Hammocks Beach State Park (southeast). Inc. town, 1842; city, 1955. Pop. (1990) city, 30,013; Jacksonville MSA, 149,838; (2000) city, 66,715; Jacksonville MSA, 150,355.

      city, Jackson county, southwestern Oregon, U.S. It lies along Jackson Creek, just west of Medford, in the foothills of the Siskiyou Mountains. It began in 1851–52 as a mining camp with placer gold discoveries along the creek (named for a prospector). By the 1920s mining activities had declined together with the population, and, bypassed by the railroad, in 1927 the city lost to Medford its status (held since 1884) as county seat. Jacksonville has, however, remained Oregon's best-preserved historic settlement, and it has been designated a National Historic Landmark Community. Its Pioneer Village contains restored buildings, mining equipment, and covered wagons. Jacksonville Museum, located in the former county courthouse (built 1883–84), contains pioneer and Indian relics, the photographs of celebrated Swiss immigrant photographer Peter Britt, and many other artifacts. The museum also maintains several buildings of the 1850s and '60s, such as the Beekman House and Beekman Bank, the McCully House (now a doll museum), and the old Methodist and Catholic churches. The Peter Britt Music Festival is held annually in Jacksonville (late June through early September) on Britt's hillside estate. Inc. 1860. Pop. (1990) 1,896; (2000) 2,235.

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Universalium. 2010.

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