Izmit


Izmit
/iz mit"/, n.
a city in NW Turkey, on the E coast of the Sea of Marmara. 141,681.
Also, Kocaeli.

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Turkey
also called  Kocaeli 

      city, northwestern Turkey. It lies near the head of İzmit Gulf of the Sea of Marmara (Marmara, Sea of). The city spreads across several hills and over a narrow plain that contains its commercial and industrial sections.

      Originally a Megarian city founded in the 8th century BCE and called Astacus (or Olbia), it achieved its greatest fame as Nicomedia, built about 264 BCE by Nicomedes I of Bithynia to replace the destroyed old city. It served as the capital of the kingdom of Bithynia and later, under the Romans, was often the residence of emperors. It became the eastern capital of the Roman Empire under Diocletian. After a period of decline under the Byzantines, it fell to the Ottomans in 1326. Historical monuments in the city include the remains of the ancient walls and a Byzantine fortress; a 16th-century mosque was built by the renowned Ottoman court architect Sinan. On Aug. 17, 1999, the city was near the epicentre of a devastating earthquake, which killed more than 17,000 people, injured more than 40,000, and destroyed or seriously damaged hundreds of thousands of buildings.

      İzmit's growth in modern times resulted mainly from its rapid industrialization and its position on the main road and rail line between Istanbul and Ankara. It is the centre of the Turkish paper industry, meeting about half of the country's requirements. It also has a large oil refinery. Other industries include cement, phosphate, textiles, petrochemicals, and tires. The port of İzmit handles both domestic and international shipping. The city is connected by road with major towns. Pop. (2007) 248,424.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Izmit — İzmit …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • IZMIT — IZMIT, port on the Sea of Marmara, in the Kocaeli Province, Turkey; in rabbinic literature its name appears as Isnimit, while its older Turkish name was Izniknid and its Greek name is Nicomedia. Its Jewish community has a long history and is… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • İzmit —   [ iz ], Kocạeli, [ dʒ ], Hauptstadt der Provinz Kocaeli in Nordwestanatolien, Türkei, an der Ostküste des Marmarameeres am Golf von İzmit, (1997) 275 800 Einwohnern (1965: 89 500 Einwohner); Industriezentrum (chemische, Gummi , Papierindustrie …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Izmit — [iz mit′] city in NW Turkey, on an inlet of the Sea of Marmara: pop. 190,000 …   English World dictionary

  • İzmit — Infobox Settlement settlement type = subdivision type = Country subdivision name = TUR timezone=EET utc offset=+2 map caption =Location of İzmit within Turkey. timezone DST=EEST utc offset DST=+3official name = İzmit |thumb|right|300px image… …   Wikipedia

  • İzmit — Vorlage:Infobox Ort in der Türkei/Wartung/Landkreis İzmit Hilfe zu Wappen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • İzmit — Para otros usos de este término, véase Provincia de Kocaeli. İzmit Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • Izmit — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Kocaeli. İzmit …   Wikipédia en Français

  • İzmit — Kocaeli (ville) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Kocaeli. Kocaeli İzmit …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Izmit — or Ismid or ancient Astacus or Nicomedia geographical name city & port NW Turkey in Asia on Gulf of Izmit (E arm of Sea of Marmara) population 256,882 …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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