ink


ink
inker, n.inkless, adj.inklike, adj.
/ingk/, n.
1. a fluid or viscous substance used for writing or printing.
2. a dark, protective fluid ejected by the cuttlefish and other cephalopods.
3. publicity, esp. in print media.
v.t.
4. to mark, stain, cover, or smear with ink: to ink one's clothes.
5. Slang. to sign one's name to (an official document): We expect to ink the contract tomorrow.
[1200-50; ME inke, enke < OF enque < LL encautum, var. of encaustum < Gk énkauston purple ink, n. use of neut. of énkaustos burnt in. See ENCAUSTIC]

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Fluid or paste of various colours (usually black or dark blue) used for writing and printing, composed of a pigment or dye in a liquid "vehicle.

" Early inks used lampblack (a form of carbon) or coloured juices, extracts, or suspensions of plant, animal, and mineral substances. Modern writing inks usually contain ferrous sulfate (see iron) with a small amount of an acid; on paper, they darken and bond, becoming permanent. Coloured and washable inks usually contain soluble synthetic dyes. Printing inks are formulated for various requirements (including colour, opacity, fade resistance, pliability, odourlessness, drying behaviour, and health and environmental safety) for uses in offset, letterpress, screen, ink-jet, laser, and other printing.

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▪ writing medium
 fluid or paste of various colours, but usually black or dark blue, used for writing and printing. It is composed of a pigment or dye dissolved or dispersed in a liquid called the vehicle.

      Writing inks date from about 2500 BC and were used in ancient Egypt and China. They consisted of lampblack ground with a solution of glue or gums, molded into sticks, and allowed to dry. Before use, the sticks were mixed with water. Various coloured juices, extracts, and suspensions of substances from plants, animals, and minerals also have been used as inks, including alizarin, indigo, pokeberries, cochineal, and sepia. For many centuries, a mixture of a soluble iron salt with an extract of tannin was used as a writing ink and is the basis of modern blue-black inks. The modern inks usually contain ferrous sulfate as the iron salt with a small amount of mineral organic acid. The resulting solution is light bluish black and, if used alone on paper, appears only faintly. After standing it becomes darker and insoluble in water, which gives it a permanent quality. To make the writing darker and more legible at the outset, dyes are added. Modern coloured inks and washable inks contain soluble synthetic dyes as the sole colouring matter. The writing fades in strong light and rinses out of washable fabrics but lasts for many years if not subjected to such effects.

       India ink is a dispersion of carbon black in water; the suspension is stabilized with various substances, including shellac in borax solution, soap, gelatin, glue, gum arabic, and dextrin. It is used mainly for drawing.

      Modern printing inks are usually less fluid than writing inks. The composition, viscosity, density, volatility, and diffusibility of ink are variable.

 The Chinese experimented with printing at least as early as AD 500, with inks from plant substances mixed with coloured earths and soot or lampblack. When Johannes Gutenberg invented printing with movable type in Germany in about 1440, inks were made by mixing varnish or boiled linseed oil with lampblack. For more than 300 years such inks continued to be used with little modification in their composition.

      In 1772 the first patent was issued in England for making coloured inks, and in the 19th century chemical drying agents appeared, making possible the use of a wide variety of pigments for coloured inks. Later, varnishes (varnish) of varying stiffness were developed to make inks for different papers and presses. Varnish was replaced by mineral oil in inks when high-speed newspaper presses were introduced. The oil base penetrated rapidly into newsprint and dried quickly. Water-based inks are also used, especially for screen printing. It was not until the beginning of the 20th century that ink-making became a complicated chemical-industrial process.

 The manufacture of modern inks takes into account the surface to be imprinted, the printing process, and special requirements for the job, such as colour, opacity, transparency, brilliance, lightfastness, surface hardness, pliability, wettability, purity, and odourlessness. Inks for low-speed letterpress printing—the process usually used in book production—are compounded of carbon black, a heavy varnish, and a drier to reduce the drying time. Many other vehicles, pigments, and modifiers may be used. intaglio inks are composed of petroleum naphthas, resins, and coal-tar solvents. The intaglio printing process is used chiefly in printing rotogravure newspaper supplements and cartons, labels, and wrappers. Plastic materials are usually printed with aniline inks, which contain methyl alcohol, synthetic resins, and shellac.
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ink — Ink, n. [OE. enke, inke, OF. enque, F. encre, L. encaustum the purple red ink with which the Roman emperors signed their edicts, Gr. ?, fr. ? burnt in, encaustic, fr. ? to burn in. See {Encaustic}, {Caustic}.] 1. A fluid, or a viscous material or …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • ink in — 1. To fill in (eg a pencil drawing) in ink 2. To apply ink to (a printing roller) • • • Main Entry: ↑ink * * * ˌink ˈin [transitive] [present tense I/you/we/they …   Useful english dictionary

  • ink´i|ly — ink|y «IHNG kee», adjective, ink|i|er, ink|i|est. 1. like ink; dark or black: »inky shadows. 2. covered with ink; marked or stained with ink: »the inky hands of a printer …   Useful english dictionary

  • ink|y — «IHNG kee», adjective, ink|i|er, ink|i|est. 1. like ink; dark or black: »inky shadows. 2. covered with ink; marked or stained with ink: »the inky hands of a printer …   Useful english dictionary

  • ink — [ɪŋk] verb [transitive] to sign an agreement, contract etc: • The two companies have inked a deal. * * * Ⅰ. ink UK US /ɪŋk/ noun [C] ► a coloured liquid used for writing, printing, etc.: »The ink had hardly dried on Nationwide s announcement when …   Financial and business terms

  • ink´er — ink «ihngk», noun, verb. –n. 1. a colored or black liquid used for writing, printing, or drawing. 2. a dark liquid thrown out for protection by cuttlefish. –v.t. 1. to put ink on; mark or stain with ink: »A poor gentleman who inks the seams of… …   Useful english dictionary

  • ink — ink; ink·er; ink·i·ness; ink·less; ink·man; ink·horn; …   English syllables

  • ink — [iŋk] n. [ME enke < OFr enque < LL encaustum < Gr enkauston, purple or red ink < enkaustos, burned in < enkaiein, to burn in < en , in + kaiein, to burn < IE base * kai > HEAT] 1. a colored liquid used for writing, drawing …   English World dictionary

  • Ink — Ink, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Inked} ([i^][ng]kt); p. pr. & vb. n. {Inking}.] To put ink upon; to supply with ink; to blacken, color, or daub with ink. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Ink — Ink, Arkansas Ink, Missouri Jerk (band). Ink (comics), a caracter del universo de Marvel. Ink (Heroes), un episode de la serie de television Heores. Esta página de desambiguación cataloga artículos relacionados con el mismo título. Si llegaste… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ink — est un super héros appartenant à l’univers de Marvel Comics. Créé par Marc Guggenheim et Yanick Paquette, il est apparu pour la première fois dans Young X Men #1 (avril 2008). Biographie fictive Jeune voyou de Harlem, Eric Gitter fut tiré de… …   Wikipédia en Français


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