incense

incense
incense1
/in"sens/, n., v., incensed, incensing.
n.
1. an aromatic gum or other substance producing a sweet odor when burned, used in religious ceremonies, to enhance a mood, etc.
2. the perfume or smoke arising from such a substance when burned.
3. any pleasant perfume or fragrance.
4. homage or adulation.
v.t.
5. to perfume with incense.
6. to burn incense for.
v.i.
7. to burn or offer incense.
[1250-1300; ME < LL incensum, lit., something kindled, neut. of incensus (ptp. of incendere to set on fire), equiv. to incend- (see INCENDIARY) + -tus ptp. suffix; r. ME ansens, ensenz < OF < LL as above]
incense2
incensement, n.
/in sens"/, v.t., incensed, incensing.
to inflame with wrath; make angry; enrage.
[1400-50; late ME incensen < L incensus (see INCENSE1); r. ME encensen < AF < L, as above]
Syn. anger, exasperate, provoke, irritate. See enrage.

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Grains of resins (sometimes mixed with spices) that burn with a fragrant odor, widely used as religious offerings.

Historically, the chief substances used as incense have been resins such as frankincense and myrrh, along with fragrant wood and bark, seeds, roots, and flowers.

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      grains of resins (sometimes mixed with spices) that burn with a fragrant odour, widely used as an oblation. It is commonly sprinkled on lighted charcoal contained in a censer, or thurible.

      Incense-bearing trees were imported from the Arabian and Somali coasts into ancient Egypt, where incense was prominent in religious ritual—e.g., at the daily liturgy before the cult image of the sun god Amon-Re and in the mortuary rites, when the souls of the dead were thought to ascend to heaven in the flame. Incense was employed to counteract disagreeable odours and drive away demons and was said both to manifest the presence of the gods (fragrance being a divine attribute) and to gratify them. The Babylonians used it extensively while offering prayer or divining oracles. It was imported into Israel before the Babylonian Exile (586–538 BC) and was assigned miraculous powers; later, in the 5th century BC, altars were set apart for incense offerings. Incense no longer has any role in the Jewish liturgy, however.

      Hindus, especially the Śaivas, use incense for ritual and domestic offerings, and so do Buddhists, who burn it at festivals and initiations as well as at daily rites. In China incense was burned during festivals and processions to honour ancestors and household gods, and in Japan it was incorporated into Shintō ritual.

      In Greece from the 8th century BC, woods and resins were burned as an oblation and for protection against demons, a practice adopted by the Orphics. In Rome fragrant woods were replaced by imported incense, which became important in public and private sacrifices and in the cult of the emperor.

      In the 4th century AD the early Christian church began to use incense in eucharistic ceremonial, in which it came to symbolize the ascent of the prayers of the faithful and the merits of the saints. Until the European Middle Ages its use was more restrained in the West than in the East. After the Reformation incense was employed sporadically in the Church of England until widely restored under the influence of the Oxford Movement in the 19th century. Elsewhere in both Eastern and Western Catholic Christendom, its use during divine worship and during processions has been continuous.

      Historically, the chief substances used as incense were such resins as frankincense and myrrh (qq.v.), along with aromatic wood and bark, seeds, roots, and flowers. The incense used by the ancient Israelites in their liturgy was a mixture of frankincense, storax, onycha, and galbanum, with salt added as a preservative. In the 17th and 18th centuries, natural substances began to be supplanted by chemicals used in the perfume industry, and this trend toward the use of synthetic substitutes in incense continues to the present day.

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Universalium. 2010.

Синонимы:

См. также в других словарях:

  • Incense — • An aromatic substance which is obtained from certain resinous trees and largely employed for purposes of religious worship Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. incense     Incense   …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Incense — In cense, n. [OE. encens, F. encens, L. incensum, fr. incensus, p. p. of incendere to burn. See {Incense} to inflame.] [1913 Webster] 1. The perfume or odors exhaled from spices and gums when burned in celebrating religious rites or as an… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Incense — In cense, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Incensed}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Incensing}.] [LL. incensare: cf. F. encenser. See {Incense}, n.] [1913 Webster] 1. To offer incense to. See {Incense}. [Obs.] Chaucer. [1913 Webster] 2. To perfume with, or as with,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • incense — incense1 [in′sens΄] n. [ME encens < OFr < LL incensum, incense < neut. of L incensus, pp. of incendere, to kindle, inflame < in , in, on + candere, to burn, shine: see CANDESCENT] 1. any of various substances, as gums or resins,… …   English World dictionary

  • incense — Ⅰ. incense [1] ► NOUN ▪ a gum, spice, or other substance that is burned for the sweet smell it produces. ► VERB ▪ perfume with incense or a similar fragrance. ORIGIN Latin incensum something burnt, incense . Ⅱ. incense [2] …   English terms dictionary

  • Incense — In*cense , v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Incensed}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Incensing}.] [L. incensus, p. p. of incendere; pref. in in + root of candere to glow. See {Candle}.] [1913 Webster] 1. To set on fire; to inflame; to kindle; to burn. [Obs.] [1913… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • incense — I verb accendere, aggravate, agitate, anger, antagonize, arouse, arouse ire, arouse resentment, cause dislike, cause loathing, cause resentment, chafe, discompose, disquiet, embitter, embroil, enkindle, enrage, envenom, exacerbate, exasperate,… …   Law dictionary

  • incense — n redolence, *fragrance, perfume, bouquet Analogous words: odor, aroma, *smell incense vb enrage, infuriate, *anger, madden Analogous words: exasperate, irritate, rile, provoke, nettle, aggravate: *offend, outrage, affront, insult …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • incense — [n] strongly fragrant smoke aroma, balm, bouquet, burnt offering, essence, flame, frankincense, fuel, myrrh, odor, perfume, punk, redolence, scent, spice; concepts 599,600 incense [v] make very angry anger, ask for it*, bother, disgust, egg on*,… …   New thesaurus

  • Incense —    Incense is one of the Six Points of Ritual which it is claimed have always characterized the worship of the Christian Church. It was the practice of the Church of England up to the Reformation, and even after that was frequently used. It is… …   American Church Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • Incense — Burning incense Incense (from Latin: incendere, to burn )[1] is composed of aromatic biotic materials, which release fragrant smoke when burned. The term incense refers to the substance itself, rather than to the odor that it produces. It is used …   Wikipedia


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