—immunologic /im'yeuh nl oj"ik, i myooh'-/, immunological, adj. —immunologically, adv. —immunologist, n./im'yeuh nol"euh jee/, n.the branch of science dealing with the components of the immune system, immunity from disease, the immune response, and immunologic techniques of analysis.[1905-10; IMMUNO- + -LOGY]
* * *Science dealing with the body's defenses against disease-causing microorganisms and disorders of those defenses.Starting with Edward Jenner's use of a vaccine against smallpox in 1796, immunology has arrived at a comprehensive and sophisticated understanding of the role of microorganisms in disease and of the formation, mobilization, action, and interaction of antibodies and antigen-reactive cells. It covers treatment of allergies, immunosuppression after organ transplants to prevent rejection, and study of autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies. AIDS has stimulated intensive research in the last of these.
* * *▪ medicinethe scientific study of the body's resistance to invasion by other organisms (i.e., immunity). In a medical sense, immunology deals with the body's system of defense against disease-causing microorganisms and with disorders in that system's functioning. The artificial induction of immunity against disease has been known in the West at least since Edward Jenner used cowpox injections to protect people from smallpox in 1796. But the scientific basis for immunology was not established until a century later, when it was recognized that: (1) proliferating microorganisms in the body cause many infectious diseases and (2) the body has certain chemical and cellular components that recognize and destroy foreign substances (antigens) within the body. This new understanding led to highly successful techniques of immunization (q.v.) that could mobilize and stimulate the body's natural defenses against infectious disease.It was only in the 20th century, however, that a comprehensive understanding was gained of the formation, mobilization, action, and interaction of antibodies and antigen-reactive lymphocytes, which are the two main active elements of the immune system. Modern immunology, besides using such basic techniques as vaccination, has become increasingly selective and sophisticated in its manipulation of the body's immune system through drugs and other agents in efforts to achieve a desired therapeutic goal. Immunologic understanding is crucial to the treatment of allergies, which are themselves hypersensitive reactions by the body's immune system to the presence of harmless antigens such as pollen grains. Immunosuppressive techniques use drugs to suppress the immune system's tendency to reject and attack antigenic bone grafts and organ transplants that have been medically introduced into the host tissue. Immunology also encompasses the increasingly important study of autoimmune diseases, in which the body's immune system attacks some constituent of its own tissues as if it were a foreign body. The study of immune deficiencies has become an area of intensive research since the appearance of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), a disease that destroys the body's immune system and for which there is currently no cure.
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Immunology — is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the… … Wikipedia
immunology — n. The science which studies the immune system, the processes of immunity, and the nature of the immune response, and techniques of analysis which use the immune response. [WordNet 1.5] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
immunology — (n.) by 1906, a hybrid from comb. form of IMMUNE (Cf. immune) + OLOGY (Cf. ology). Related: Immunological; immunologist … Etymology dictionary
immunology — ► NOUN ▪ the branch of medicine and biology concerned with immunity. DERIVATIVES immunologic adjective immunological adjective immunologist noun … English terms dictionary
immunology — ☆ immunology [im΄yo͞o näl′ə jē ] n. [ IMMUNO + LOGY] the branch of science dealing with a) antigens and antibodies, esp. concerning immunity to some infections b) cellular immune mechanisms, as in the rejection of foreign tissues immunological… … English World dictionary
Immunology — The study of all aspects of the immune system including its structure and function, disorders of the immune system, blood banking, immunization and organ transplantation. * * * 1. The science concerned with the various phenomena of immunity,… … Medical dictionary
immunology — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: 1910 a science that deals with the immune system and the cell mediated and humoral aspects of immunity and immune responses • immunologic or immunological adjective • immunologically… … New Collegiate Dictionary
immunology — the study of immunity, the chemical response to an infection, used to work out relationships between species based on similar responses … Dictionary of ichthyology
immunology — (im u nol o je) The branch of science that deals with the immune system and attempts to understand the many phenomena that are responsible for both acquired and innate immunity. It also includes the use of antibody antigen reactions in other… … Dictionary of microbiology
immunology — noun The branch of medicine that studies the bodys immune system … Wiktionary