hsien


hsien
/shyun/, n., pl. hsien.
1. (in popular Chinese religion) one of a group of benevolent spirits promoting good in the world.
2. (in China) a county or district.
[1965-70; < Chin (Wade-Giles) hsien1, (pinyin) xian hermit, wizard]

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(as used in expressions)
Fa hsien
Cheng hsien
Wei Chung hsien

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▪ Chinese government unit
      the basic unit of local government in China. The word hsien may be roughly translated as “county,” or “district.”

      The hsien originated during the Ch'un-ch'iu (Chunqiu), or Spring and Autumn, period (770–476 BC) of Chinese history. Villages or townships on China's western frontier that had been newly conquered by such expanding Chinese states as Ch'in and Ch'u (Chu) were placed directly under the authority of the head of the kingdom, in contrast to more settled areas in which the local aristocratic families held governing authority. The first recorded use of the term hsien to denote these centrally administered townships dates from 688/687 BC. During the Warring States period (475–221 BC), as the heads of Chinese kingdoms became more powerful at the expense of their nobles, the hsien became the model for a new type of administrative system based on districts that were all governed by the central power of the kingdom. The kingdom of Ch'in became the first to formally adopt the hsien as its basic administrative unit in the 4th century BC. The system was subsequently adopted by the Ch'in and Han dynasties, which unified China. In the hierarchy of territories created by the Western Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 25), several hsien, or counties, were grouped into a larger unit called a commandery (chün), several of which were in turn grouped into a prefecture (chou) that was based in a large city. Each hsien was governed by a magistrate appointed by the imperial court, and he was assisted by a locally recruited staff.

      During the Sui dynasty's governmental reforms in the late 6th century AD, the commandery was abolished as an administrative unit, but the hsien (county) and prefecture were retained, the latter comprising on average six or seven hsien. Under the Yüan and Ming dynasties, still-larger units, called provinces (sheng), were created out of a handful of prefectures. This territorial hierarchy has continued, with only a few interruptions, down to present-day Chinese government.

Daoism
      in Chinese Taoism, an immortal who has achieved divinity through devotion to Taoist practices and teachings.

      Early Taoist sages, including Chuang-tzu, referred perhaps allegorically to immortal beings with magical powers; some followers interpreted these references literally and devoted themselves to discovering the “drug of immortality” and prolonging their lives through breath control, yogalike exercises, and abstention from grains. Adepts in these practices, though appearing to die, were believed to achieve physical immortality and admission to heavenly realms inaccessible to the spirits of mere mortals. The pursuit of this state gave rise to a vast body of Taoist alchemical and other esoteric techniques and lore.

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Universalium. 2010.

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