horsetail


horsetail
/hawrs"tayl'/, n.
1. Also called scouring rush. any nonflowering plant of the genus Equisetum, having hollow, jointed stems.
2. a horse's tail formerly used as a Turkish military standard or as an ensign of a pasha, the number of tails increasing with the rank.
[1350-1400; ME horse tayle. See HORSE, TAIL1]

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also called scouring rush

Any of the 30 species of rushlike (see rush), conspicuously segmented, perennial herbaceous plants that make up the genus Equisetum.

They grow in moist, rich soils everywhere except Australasia. Some are evergreen; others send up new shoots every year. The stems contain abundant silicate minerals and other minerals. The leaves are merely sheaths that encircle the shoots. An ancient plant, the horsetail's relatives date to the Carboniferous Period. The common horsetail (E. arvense) is widespread along streambanks and in meadows in North America and Eurasia. Though poisonous to livestock, horsetails are used in folk medicines. Because of their abrasive stems, some species have been used in polishing tools.

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▪ plant genus
also called  scouring rush 
 plants of the genus Equisetum, 15 species of rushlike conspicuously jointed perennial herbs. Equisetum is the only living genus of the order Equisetales and the class Equisetopsida. Horsetails grow in moist, rich soils in all parts of the world except Australasia. Some species produce two kinds of shoots: those with conelike clusters (strobili) of spore capsules and those lacking such structures. Some are evergreen; others send up new shoots annually from underground rootstalks. Their hollow, jointed, ridged stems contain silicate and other minerals. The leaves are reduced to sheaths that clasp and encircle the shoots.

      A widespread species along stream banks and in meadows in North America and Eurasia is the common horsetail (E. arvense), about 30 centimetres (one foot) tall. The central cavity of each stem is about a quarter of its outside diameter. Fairly thick, solid branches arise from below the sheaths, circling the shoots like spokes on a wheel. Stems that bear terminal spore cones are often flesh-coloured and are present only for a short time in the spring. Wood horsetail (E. sylvaticum) grows in moist, cool woods and has many delicate branches that circle the shoots. Variegated horsetail (E. variegatum) is evergreen and has black markings on the sheaths. Common scouring rush (E. hyemale), occurring in moist woods and on riverbanks, reaches well over a metre in height. The evergreen shoots often were used for scouring pots and pans in earlier times.

      Giant horsetail (E. praealtum) of North America and Asia, which reaches 3.5 metres (11.5 feet), also is evergreen. Each shoot has as many as 48 ridges. The giant horsetail of Europe (E. telmateia) is about the same height as common scouring rush. The tallest of all horsetails is a slender South American species (E. giganteum), which sometimes grows to 10 metres (about 32 feet) in height with a diameter of about 2 cm (less than 1 inch) and is supported by the tall grasses and shrubs around it.

      Horsetails, although poisonous to livestock, are used by humans in folk medicines. Some species are utilized in polishing tools because of their abrasive stems.

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Universalium. 2010.