Holstein


Holstein
/hohl"stuyn, -steen/; for 2 also Ger. /hohl"shtuyn'/, n.
1. Also called Holstein-Friesian /hohl"stuyn free"zheuhn, -steen-/. one of a breed of black-and-white dairy cattle, raised originally in North Holland and Friesland, that yields large quantities of milk having a low content of butterfat.
2. a region in N Germany, at the base of the peninsula of Jutland: a former duchy. Cf. Schleswig-Holstein.
[1860-65]

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I

Breed of large dairy cattle that originated in northern Holland and Friesland.

Its chief characteristics are its large size and black-and-white-spotted markings, sharply defined rather than blended. Probably selected for their dairy qualities с 2,000 years ago, they have long been distributed over the fertile lowlands of continental Europe. In the U.S., Holsteins outnumber all other dairy breeds and produce 90% of the milk supply. Their milk has a relatively low butterfat content.
II
(as used in expressions)
Holstein Friesian
Holstein Friedrich August von
Schleswig Holstein
Schleswig Holstein Question
Karl Peter Ulrich duke von Holstein Gottorp
Anne Louise Germaine Necker Baroness de Staë l Holstein

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      historic and cultural region occupying the southern Jutland Peninsula between the Eider and Elbe rivers, now comprising the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein Land (state) in northern Germany. Holstein was created as a county of the Holy Roman Empire in 1111. It came under a personal union with the Danish king in 1459, an arrangement which caused much unrest among the German majority. In 1474 Holstein was raised to the rank of a duchy in the Holy Roman Empire and after 1815 in the German Confederation. Attempts by Denmark to annex Holstein and Schleswig led to war with Austria and Prussia in 1864. Denmark was defeated and, as a result, Holstein was annexed by Prussia and incorporated with Schleswig as a single Prussian province by the Peace of Prague (1866).

      The people of Holstein are mostly descendants of the Saxons and speak a Low German dialect. More than 85 percent are Protestants. The predominant rural settlement pattern in the marshlands along the North Sea coast and Elbe River is one of linear villages (Marschhufendörfer) situated along interior dikes and canals, with their fields extending at right angles in long narrow strips. In the eastern farming zone along the Baltic coast compact villages, small hamlets, and large estates dominate. Farms of the less fertile central Geest region are dispersed. The traditional single-story Saxon farmhouse is characteristic of Holstein. One vast, steeply sloping roof houses the Diele, a large threshing floor running through the building, and the living quarters and stables on either side. The Diele is entered through a large gateway at the gable end of the building.

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Universalium. 2010.

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