hernia


hernia
hernial, adj.
/herr"nee euh/, n., pl. hernias, herniae /-nee ee'/. Pathol.
the protrusion of an organ or tissue through an opening in its surrounding walls, esp. in the abdominal region. Cf. hiatus hernia, strangulated hernia.
[1350-1400; ME < L: a rupture; akin to hira gut; see HARUSPEX]

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Protrusion of any organ or tissue from its normal cavity.

The term usually refers to an abdominal hernia, which may be a congenital disorder or acquired after birth. Tissue may protrude through the abdominal muscle at the groin (inguinal), upper thigh (femoral), or navel (umbilical); its circulation can become cut off, leading to inflammation, infection, and gangrene. If the tissue cannot be pushed back into place and kept there by a truss, surgery may be necessary. Other common hernias are hiatal hernia (protrusion of part or all of the stomach above the diaphragm) and herniated disk (protrusion of tissue from a disk in the vertebral column through its outer layer).

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      protrusion of an organ or tissue from its normal cavity. The protrusion may extend outside the body or between cavities within the body, as when loops of intestine escape from the abdominal cavity into the chest through a defect in the diaphragm, the muscular partition between the two cavities. The term is usually applied, however, to an external herniation of tissue through the abdominal wall.

      An abdominal hernia, or rupture, may occur at any weak point in the abdominal wall. The common sites are the groin (inguinal), the upper part of the thigh (femoral), and the navel (umbilical). In inguinal hernia, the protruding tissue descends along the canal that holds the spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament in the female. If such a hernia occurs bilaterally, it is called a double hernia. A femoral hernia lies on the inner side of the large femoral blood vessels of the thigh. An umbilical hernia protrudes through the navel.

      A hernia may be present at birth as the result of defective development of the abdominal wall, or it may occur later in life as the result of an injury. An acquired hernia usually is caused by overexertion, as in lifting a heavy weight, jumping off a high wall, or violent coughing. Men develop hernias more frequently than do women because of their greater physical exertions and because the canal for the spermatic cord leading through the abdominal wall is wider than the canal for the round ligament. A special type of acquired hernia is the incisional hernia, which occurs at an incision after surgery.

      The hernia may be classified as reducible, irreducible, or strangulated. A reducible hernia is one in which the contents can be pushed back into the abdomen and often may be held in place by a truss, a pad of heavy material that is placed over the herniated area. A truss is usually a temporary expedient and is seldom used as a substitute for surgical care. A reducible hernia may increase in size or may form adhesions to other organs or structures, becoming irreducible. A strangulated hernia is one in which the circulation of blood through the hernia is impeded by pinching at the narrowest part of the passage; congestion is followed by inflammation, infection, and gangrene. The tighter the constriction, the more rapidly these events take place; unrelieved strangulation may be fatal. Surgery is often necessary for the permanent relief of reducible hernia, and it is the only safe treatment for more advanced forms.

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Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hernia — Classification and external resources Frontal chest X ray showing a hernia of Morgagni ICD 10 K …   Wikipedia

  • hernia — f. anat. patol. Deslizamiento o salida total o parcial de un órgano a través de un orificio natural o accidental. Las hernias más frecuentes, ya sean congénitas o adquiridas suelen producirse a través del abdomen, de los conductos naturales o por …   Diccionario médico

  • Hernia — Her ni*a, n.; pl. E. {Hernias}, L. {Herni[ae]}. [L.] (Med.) A protrusion, consisting of an organ or part which has escaped from its natural cavity, and projects through some natural or accidental opening in the walls of the latter; as, hernia of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • hernia — (Del lat. hernĭa). f. Med. Protrusión o salida de parte de un órgano, como el intestino, de la estructura anatómica que normalmente la fija. hernia de disco. f. Med. Protrusión de un fragmento de un disco intervertebral, que, al comprimir el… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • hernia en w — Hernia en la que el saco herniario contiene dos asas intestinales, comprendiendo un segmento interedio situado dentro del abdomen. Hernia retrógrada. Diccionario ilustrado de Términos Médicos.. Alvaro Galiano. 2010 …   Diccionario médico

  • hernia — late 14c., hirnia, from L. hernia a rupture, related to hira intestine, PIE *ghere gut, entrail (see YARN (Cf. yarn)). The re Latinized spelling is from 17c. Related: Herniated (1879) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Hernia — (lat.), s. Bruch (Chir.) 2) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Hernĭa — (lat., Hernie), Bruch, Eingeweidebruch; H. femoralis oder cruralis, Schenkelbruch; H. inguinalis, Leistenbruch; H. umbilicalis, Nabelbruch …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Hernia — Hernĭa (lat.), Eingeweidebruch (s. Bruch); Herniotomīe, Bruchschnitt, Operation des eingeklemmten Bruchs …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Hernia — Hernia, lat., Eingeweidebruch; davon herniös, mit einem Bruche behaftet; Herniologie, Lehre von den Brüchen …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • hérnia — s. f. 1. Tumor mole formado pela deslocação de uma víscera. 2.  [Popular] Quebradura …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa


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