hematology


hematology
hematologic /hee'meuh tl oj"ik, hem'euh-, hi mat'euh-/, hematological, adj.hematologist, n.
/hee'meuh tol"euh jee, hem'euh-/, n. Med.
the study of the nature, function, and diseases of the blood and of blood-forming organs.
[1805-15; HEMATO- + -LOGY]

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Branch of medicine concerned with the nature, function, and diseases of the blood.

It covers the cellular and serum composition of blood, the coagulation process, blood-cell formation, hemoglobin synthesis, and disorders of all these. Marcello Malpighi, in the 17th century, was the first to examine red blood cells (erythrocytes). In the 18th century, the British physiologist William Hewson (1739–74) examined the lymphatic system and blood clotting. In the 19th century, the bone marrow was recognized as the site of blood-cell formation, and diseases of the blood such as anemia and leukemia were identified. In the early 20th century, the ABO blood-group system was discovered and the role of nutrition in blood formation was studied. Post-World War II studies have delved further into the nature of blood diseases and improved treatments and have examined hemoglobin synthesis and the role of platelets in blood coagulation.

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also spelled  haematology 

      branch of medical science concerned with the nature, function, and diseases of the blood. In the 17th century, Dutch microscopist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (Leeuwenhoek, Antonie van), using a primitive, single-lens microscope, observed red blood cells (erythrocytes (erythrocyte)) and compared their size with that of a grain of sand. In the 18th century English physiologist William Hewson (Hewson, William) amplified the description of red cells and demonstrated the role of fibrin in the clotting ( coagulation) of blood. bone marrow was recognized as the site of blood-cell formation in the 19th century, along with the first clinical descriptions of pernicious anemia, leukemia, and a number of other disorders of the blood.

      The discovery of the ABO blood group system in the first quarter of the 20th century made possible the transfusion (blood transfusion) of blood from one person to another without the serious ill effects that ensue when incompatible blood is given. The study of the blood disease anemia gained impetus from the introduction of the hematocrit, an apparatus for determining the volume of red blood cells as compared with the volume of plasma, and the introduction in 1932 of a simple method of measuring the volume and hemoglobin (the substance that transports oxygen to the tissues) content of these cells. About 1920 the investigation of the role of food substances in the production of red blood cells led to discovery of the beneficial effects of liver extract in treating pernicious anemia and ultimately to the discovery of 12 (vitamin B12), the anti-anemic principle of liver. Parallel discoveries in nutrition, biochemistry, and the use of heavy and radioactive isotopes helped elucidate how hemoglobin is produced and aided in the recognition of changes that take place in disease.

      After World War II the field of hematology broadened. Hematological studies of sickle cell anemia revealed that a variation in hemoglobin at the molecular level can be the underlying cause of disease. Simultaneous advances in techniques of protein and enzyme chemistry permitted recognition of a large number of other genetic disorders of hemoglobin synthesis (hemoglobinopathies (hemoglobinopathy)).

      The advent of molecular biology and molecular genetics has allowed researchers to study the mechanisms of diseases of platelet function, coagulation, and hematologic cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hematology — Hem a*tol o*gy, n. [Hemato + logy.] The science which treats of the blood. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • hematology — [hē΄mə täl′ə jē, hem΄ətäl′ə jē] n. [ HEMATO + LOGY] the study of the blood, blood forming tissues, and blood diseases hematologic [hē΄mətō läj′ik, hem΄ətō läj′ik] adj. hematological hematologist n …   English World dictionary

  • Hematology — Hematologist Occupation Names Medical Specialist Activity sectors Medicine Description Education required Doctor of Medicine Medical residency Fellowship (medicine) Hematology, also spelled haematology (from the …   Wikipedia

  • hematology — noun Date: circa 1811 a medical science that deals with the blood and blood forming organs • hematologist noun …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • hematology — noun The scientific study of blood and blood producing organs. See Also: hematologist, haematologist …   Wiktionary

  • hematology — The medical specialty that pertains to the anatomy, physiology, pathology, symptomatology, and therapeutics related to the blood and blood forming tissues. SYN: hemology. [hemato + G. logos, study] * * * he·ma·tol·o·gy …   Medical dictionary

  • hematology — he|ma|tol|o|gy [ ,himə talədʒi ] the scientific study of blood …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • hematology — study of blood Sciences and Studies …   Phrontistery dictionary

  • hematology — n. scientific study of the blood …   English contemporary dictionary

  • hematology — he·ma·tol·o·gy …   English syllables


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