Harrisburg


Harrisburg
/har"is berrg'/, n.
a city in and the capital of Pennsylvania, in the S part, on the Susquehanna River. 53,264.

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City (pop., 2000: 48,950), capital of Pennsylvania, U.S. Located in southeastern Pennsylvania on the Susquehanna River, the site was first established с 1718 as a trading post and ferry service by John Harris, who named it Harris' Ferry.

Laid out in 1785, it became known as Harrisburg and was made the state capital in 1812. In 1839 it was the scene of the first national Whig Party convention, which nominated William H. Harrison. After completion of the Pennsylvania Railroad's main line from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh in 1847, it developed as a transportation centre. The state capitol, with a dome patterned after St. Peter's in Rome, was completed in 1906.

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 city, seat (1859) of Saline county, southern Illinois, U.S. It lies about 40 miles (65 km) east of Carbondale. It was laid out in 1853 and named in honour of James Harris, an attorney who helped establish the community. Coal mining began in 1854 and soon became Harrisburg's chief industry. The completion of a rail link in 1872 further boosted the coal industry. Lying less than 25 miles (40 km) west of the Ohio River, the city has been subject to periodic flooding, the worst of which occurred in 1937; a dike was subsequently built to protect the city. The economy is based on coal mining, agriculture (corn [maize], soybeans, and livestock), and manufacturing (building materials, gloves, and hats). Channelization of the Saline River, a few miles east, affords barge transportation. Harrisburg is the seat of Southeastern Illinois (community) College (1960). The city is also home to the Saline County Area Historical Museum, which includes the three-story Old Pauper Home, part of a poor farm bought by the county in the 1860s. Harrisburg is the headquarters of Shawnee National Forest; within the forest, 10 miles (16 km) southwest of the city, is the Garden of the Gods Wilderness area, which has many unusual rock formations. Several state recreation areas are also nearby. Inc. town, 1861; city, 1889. Pop. (1990) 9,289; (2000) 9,860.

      capital (1812) of Pennsylvania, U.S., and seat (1785) of Dauphin county, on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, 105 miles (169 km) west of Philadelphia. It is the hub of an urbanized area that includes Steelton, Paxtang, Penbrook, Colonial Park, Linglestown, Hershey, Middletown (in Dauphin county) and Camp Hill, Lemoyne, New Cumberland, Mechanicsburg, West Fairview, and Enola (in Cumberland county).

      After receiving a license (1705) to trade with the Susquehannock (Susquehanna) Indians, John Harris, an Englishman, established (c. 1718) a trading post and ferry service. The settlement, known as Harris' Ferry, was called Louisbourg in honour of Louis XVI of France, when it was laid out in 1785 by William Maclay for John Harris, Jr. The name Harrisburg, however, was used on the borough and city charters of 1791 and 1860. Harrisburg was the scene of the National Tariff Convention of 1827, and the first national Whig (Whig Party) convention in 1839, which nominated William Henry Harrison (Harrison, William Henry) for U.S. president. It developed as a transportation centre after the opening of the Pennsylvania Canal in 1834, the arrival of the first railroad train (1836), and the completion (1847) of the Pennsylvania Railroad's main line from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh. An American Civil War skirmish was fought at Camp Hill, 3 miles southwest, in June 1863.

      The city has continued as a transportation hub, and government employment and industrial development—in particular the manufacture of electronic and electrical interconnection devices—have added to its economic diversification. The Defense Distribution Region East (formerly New Cumberland Army Depot), the Naval Inventory Control Point (formerly U.S. Naval Supply Depot) near Mechanicsburg, and the U.S. Army War College at Carlisle are nearby. Educational and research institutions include the Harrisburg Area Community College (1964), the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center (site of Pennsylvania State University's College of Medicine) in Hershey, and the Harrisburg upper-division college of Pennsylvania State University (Penn State Harrisburg), which is located in nearby Middletown. The state capitol, with a 272-foot (83-metre) dome patterned after St. Peter's (Saint Peter's Basilica) in Rome, was completed in 1906 to replace the first capitol, which was destroyed by fire in 1897. The State Museum of Pennsylvania is among the group of buildings (including the capitol) occupying a 68-acre (28-hectare) downtown park. The remodeled John Harris/Simon Cameron Mansion (1766) is now the headquarters of the Dauphin County Historical Society. Paddlewheeler cruises are offered on the Susquehanna River, and the city has a symphony orchestra. Pop. (2000) city, 48,950; Harrisburg-Carlisle MSA, 509,074; (2006 est.) city, 47,164; Harrisburg-Carlisle MSA, 525,380.

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Universalium. 2010.

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