guanine


guanine
/gwah"neen/, n. Biochem.
a purine base, C5H5N5O, that is a fundamental constituent of DNA and RNA, in which it forms base pairs with cytosine. Symbol: G Cf. guanosine.
[GUAN(O) + -INE2]

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Organic compound of the purine family, often called a base, consisting of two rings, each containing both nitrogen and carbon atoms, and an amino group.

It occurs in combined form in many important biological molecules, particularly nucleic acids, and free or combined in various natural sources, including guano, sugar beets, yeast, and fish scales. In DNA its complementary base is cytosine. It or its corresponding nucleoside or nucleotide may be prepared from nucleic acids by selective techniques of hydrolysis.

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      an organic compound belonging to the purine group, a class of compounds with a characteristic two-ringed structure, composed of carbon and nitrogen atoms, and occurring free or combined in such diverse natural sources as guano (the accumulated excrement and dead bodies of birds, bats, and seals), sugar beets, yeast, and fish scales. It is a component of nucleic acids (nucleic acid), the cell constituents that store and transmit hereditary traits.

      Guanine was first discovered in guano in 1846 and was isolated in 1891 from nucleic acids from which it is readily prepared.

      More complex compounds obtainable from nucleic acids include the nucleosides guanosine and deoxyguanosine, in which guanine is combined with the sugars ribose and deoxyribose and the nucleotides guanylic acid and deoxyguanylic acid, which are phosphoric acid esters of guanosine and deoxyguanosine. Nucleotides are molecules that constitute the fundamental structural units of nucleic acids; nucleosides are smaller subunits lacking in phosphoric acid.

      Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is used by the body to form the guanylic acid units in ribonucleic acids (RNA's).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Guanine — Structure de la 1,9H guanine Général …   Wikipédia en Français

  • guanine — [ gwanin ] n. f. • 1858; de guano ♦ Biochim. Une des quatre bases azotées, constituant des acides ribonucléique et désoxyribonucléique. Dans l A. D. N. « la Guanine (G) s associe avec la Cytosine (C) » (Monod). ● guanine nom féminin (de guano)… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • guanine — guanine. См. гуанин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • guanine — 1850, from GUANO (Cf. guano), from which the chemical first was isolated, + chemical suffix INE (Cf. ine) (2) …   Etymology dictionary

  • guanine — [gwä′nēn΄, gwä′nin] n. [< GUANO (a commercial source of the base) + INE3] a crystalline purine base, C5H5N5O, contained in the nucleic acids of all tissue: it links with cytosine in the DNA structure …   English World dictionary

  • Guanine — chembox ImageFile1 = Guanine chemical structure.png ImageSize1 = 150px ImageFileL2 = Guanine 3D balls.png ImageSizeL2 = 100px ImageFileR2 = Guanine 3D vdW.png ImageSizeR2 = 100px IUPACName = 2 amino 1 H purin 6(9 H ) one OtherNames = 2 amino 6… …   Wikipedia

  • Guanine — One of the four bases in DNA that make up the letters ATGC. Guanine is the G . The others are adenine, cytosine, and thymine. Guanine always pairs with cytosine to form the base pair G C (guanine cytosine) in the DNA. The other base pair in the… …   Medical dictionary

  • guanine — guaninas statusas T sritis chemija formulė C₅H₂N₄(NH₂)OH santrumpa( os) Gua atitikmenys: angl. guanine rus. гуанин ryšiai: sinonimas – 2 amino 6 purinolis …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • guanine — guaninas statusas T sritis augalininkystė apibrėžtis Azotinė bazė ( purino darinys), įeinanti į DNR sudėtį. atitikmenys: angl. guanine rus. гуанин …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • guanine — noun Etymology: guano + ine; from its being found especially in guano Date: 1850 a purine base C5H5N5O that codes genetic information in the polynucleotide chain of DNA or RNA compare adenine, cytosine, thymine, uracil …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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