Grenada


Grenada
Grenadian /gri nay"dee euhn/, adj., n.
/gri nay"deuh/, n.
1. one of the Windward Islands, in the E West Indies.
2. an independent country comprising this island and the S Grenadines: a former British colony; gained independence 1974: scene of invasion by U.S. and Caribbean forces 1983. 95,537; 133 sq. mi. (344 sq. km). Cap.: St. George's.
3. a town in central Mississippi. 12,641.

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Grenada

Introduction Grenada
Background: One of the smallest independent countries in the western hemisphere, Grenada was seized by a Marxist military council on 19 October 1983. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. Free elections were reinstituted the following year. Geography Grenada -
Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Geographic coordinates: 12 07 N, 61 40 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total: 344 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 344 sq km
Area - comparative: twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 121 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate: tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
Terrain: volcanic in origin with central mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m
Natural resources: timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors
Land use: arable land: 5.88% permanent crops: 26.47% other: 67.65% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November Environment - current issues: NA Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada People Grenada
Population: 89,211 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.9% (male 16,213; female 15,863) 15-64 years: 60.3% (male 28,460; female 25,307) 65 years and over: 3.8% (male 1,546; female 1,822) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.02% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 23.05 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 7.63 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate: -15.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/ female total population: 1.08 male(s)/ female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 14.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.52 years female: 66.31 years (2002 est.) male: 62.74 years
Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA% HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Grenadian(s) adjective: Grenadian
Ethnic groups: black 82%, mixed black and European 13%, European and East Indian 5% , and trace of Arawak/Carib Amerindian
Religions: Roman Catholic 53%, Anglican 13.8%, other Protestant 33.2%
Languages: English (official), French patois
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98% male: 98% female: 98% (1970 est.) Government Grenada
Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Grenada
Government type: constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style parliament
Capital: Saint George's Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petit Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick
Independence: 7 February 1974 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 7 February (1974)
Constitution: 19 December 1973
Legal system: based on English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Daniel WILLIAMS (since 9 August 1996) head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 22 June 1995) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; prime minister appointed by the governor general from among the members of the House of Assembly
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a 13-member body, 10 appointed by the government and three by the leader of the opposition) and the House of Representatives (15 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held on 18 January 1999 (next to be held by NA October 2004) election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NNP 14, GULP 1
Judicial branch: West Indies Associate States Supreme Court (an associate judge resides in Grenada) Political parties and leaders: Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Herbert PREUDHOMME]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [leader vacant]; New National Party or NNP [George McGUIRE] Political pressure groups and NA
leaders: International organization ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-
participation: 77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTrO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Denis G. ANTOINE consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561 chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: the ambassador to
US: Barbados is accredited to Grenada; Charge d'Affairs Nadia TONGOUR embassy: Point Salines, Saint George's mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's, Grenada, West Indies telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173 through 1176 FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820
Flag description: a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow, five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven administrative divisions Economy Grenada -
Economy - overview: Despite government steadying of annual economic growth in recent years through progress in fiscal reform and prudent macroeconomic management, a downturn in tourist arrivals in 2001 threatens government spending in 2002. Grenada relies on tourism as its main source of foreign exchange, although it also supports a small agriculture sector and a developing offshore financial industry. Short-term concerns include a rising fiscal deficit and the deterioration in the external account balance.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $424 million (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,750 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 7.7% industry: 23.9% services: 68.4% (2000) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 42,300 (1996) Labor force - by occupation: services 62%, agriculture 24%, industry 14% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 11.5% (1999)
Budget: revenues: $85.8 million expenditures: $102.1 million, including capital expenditures of $28 million (1997)
Industries: food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1997 est.) Electricity - production: 110 million kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 102.3 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables
Exports: $78 million (2000 est.)
Exports - commodities: bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace
Exports - partners: Caricom 32.3%, UK 20%, US 13%, Netherlands 8.8% (1991)
Imports: $270 million (2000 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel (1989)
Imports - partners: US 31.2%, Caricom 23.6%, UK 13.8%, Japan 7.1% (1991)
Debt - external: $196 million (2000) Economic aid - recipient: $8.3 million (1995)
Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Currency code: XCD
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Grenada Telephones - main lines in use: 27,000 (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 976 (1997)
Telephone system: general assessment: automatic, islandwide telephone system domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links international: new SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 57,000 (1997) Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)
Televisions: 33,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .gd Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 14 (2000)
Internet users: 4,100 (2001) Transportation Grenada Railways: 0 km Highways: total: 1,040 km paved: 638 km unpaved: 402 km (1996) Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Grenville, Saint George's
Merchant marine: none (2002 est.) Airports: 3 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001) Military Grenada
Military branches: Royal Grenada Police Force, Coast Guard Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA Military expenditures - percent of NA%
GDP: Transnational Issues Grenada
Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: small-scale cannabis cultivation; lesser transshipment point for marijuana and cocaine to US

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Self-governing state, Windward Islands, West Indies.

Area: 133 sq mi (344 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 101,000. Capital: St. George's. Blacks, mulattoes, and East Indians make up most of the population. Language: English (official). Religion: Roman Catholicism. Currency: Eastern Caribbean dollar. Grenada is the most southerly of the Windward Islands, lying about 100 mi (160 km) north of Venezuela; its territory includes the southern Grenadines. Volcanic in origin, it is dominated by a thickly forested mountain ridge rising to 2,757 ft (840 m) at Mount St. Catherine. The southern coast is indented with beaches and natural harbours. The tropical maritime climate supports rich vegetation. Often called the Isle of Spice, Grenada is known for its nutmeg, cinnamon, and vanilla as well as for cocoa. It has a developing market economy dependent on agricultural exports and tourism. The chief of state is the British sovereign, represented by the governor-general; the head of government is the prime minister. The warlike Carib Indians dominated Grenada when Christopher Columbus sighted the island in 1498 and named it Concepción; the Caribs ruled it for the next 150 years. In 1672 it became subject to the French crown and remained so until 1762, when British forces captured it. In 1833 the island's black slaves were freed. Grenada was the headquarters of the government of the British Windward Islands (1885–1958) and a member of the West Indies Federation (1958–62). It became a self-governing state in association with Britain in 1967 and gained its independence in 1974. In 1979 a left-wing government took control in a bloodless coup. Relations with its U.S.-oriented Latin American neighbours became strained as Grenada leaned toward Cuba and the Soviet bloc. In order to counteract this trend, the U.S. invaded the island in 1983; democratic self-government was reestablished in 1984. Grenada's relations with Cuba, once suspended, were restored in 1997.

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▪ 2009

Area:
344 sq km (133 sq mi)
Population
(2008 est.): 108,000
Capital:
Saint George's
Chief of state:
Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governors-General Sir Daniel Williams and, from November 27, Carlyle Glean
Head of government:
Prime Ministers Keith Mitchell and, from July 9, Tillman Thomas

      In February 2008 the government of Grenada appointed a receiver to take over the operations of Capital Bank International. The government explained that this step was necessary because of the bank's “failure” to accede to withdrawal requests by customers, raising questions about its solvency. In March the World Bank approved a no-interest $1.9 million loan to Grenada to support the government's efforts to improve the local business environment through private sector-led growth. Key government responsibilities such as customs, tax administration, and investment and export promotion were to be modernized.

      A commission of inquiry concluded in May that it could find no evidence that Prime Minister Keith Mitchell had accepted bribes from Grenada's Ambassador-at-Large Eric Resteiner, as a condition for appointing him to the post and providing him with a diplomatic passport. Mitchell insisted that the $15,000 under investigation was for expenses incurred by him as prime minister for official travel abroad, which Resteiner had agreed to fund. The opposition National Democratic Congress (NDC) rejected the commission's findings.

      In the general election held in July, the NDC convincingly ousted Mitchell's New National Party administration, with an 11–4-seat majority in the House of Representatives. NDC leader Tillman Thomas was sworn in as prime minister.

      Thomas announced in September that a commission had been established to delimit the maritime boundary between Grenada and Trinidad and Tobago. The commission was part of the NDC's policy of increased cooperation between Grenada and its Caribbean neighbours.

David Renwick

▪ 2008

Area:
344 sq km (133 sq mi)
Population
(2007 est.): 108,000
Capital:
Saint George's
Chief of state:
Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Sir Daniel Williams
Head of government:
Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      The Commission of Enquiry's investigation into allegations of corruption against Grenadan Prime Minister Keith Mitchell ended its oral hearings in August 2007. The sole commissioner, Barbados lawyer Richard Cheltenham, reported that no evidence had been produced to incriminate Mitchell.

 In June the Grenada High Court ordered the immediate release of Lester Redhead, Christopher Stroude, and Cecil Prime—3 of the remaining 13 imprisoned leaders of the 1983 insurrection against then prime minister Maurice Bishop, who, together with four cabinet ministers and six supporters, was murdered by a firing squad. The three were released following a resentencing trial ordered by Grenada's highest court, the London-based Privy Council, on the grounds that the imposition in 1986 of the death penalty was “unconstitutional.” Judge Francis Belle declared that Redhead, Stroude, and Prime did not represent any “future risk to the society.” The other 10 ringleaders of the insurrection, including its instigator, Bishop's deputy Bernard Coard, were given 40-year jail sentences, much of which had been served. In December 2006 the government released Cosmos Richardson, Andy Mitchell, and Vincent Joseph from prison for “good behaviour.” The Grenadan government was not entirely happy with the judge's verdict in the 2007 resentencing, however, and in August made an application to the court for permission to challenge his “suitability” to preside over the hearing.

David Renwick

▪ 2007

Area:
344 sq km (133 sq mi)
Population
(2006 est.): 107,000
Capital:
Saint George's
Chief of state:
Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Sir Daniel Williams
Head of government:
Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      Grenada ratified the Inter-American Convention Against Terrorism in June 2006, and the country's permanent representative to the Organization of American States, Denis Antoine, pledged that Grenada would remain “a strong partner in the fight against terrorism.”

      The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in June issued a report in which it advised the government that in the interests of “national reconciliation,” new trials should be granted to the 17 people serving life sentences for the murders in October 1983 of then prime minister Maurice Bishop, four cabinet ministers, and other supporters of the Bishop government. Days after the murders, U.S. troops invaded Grenada to oust the rebels who had seized power from Bishop and instigated the killings.

      Also in June, Venezuela granted Grenada 340,000 bbl per year of refined oil products under the deferred-payment system administered through the PetroCaribe arrangement. This was expected to save the country significant amounts of foreign exchange that would normally have been required to pay for oil imports at market prices.

      The government, worried about the decline of tourism, Grenada's main foreign-exchange earner, launched an aggressive international marketing effort in July. Tourist arrivals in June were described by leading hoteliers as “the worst seen in any month for 30 years.”

      Grenada had been downplaying relations with Taiwan following its formal establishment of ties with China in 2005. A decision by the official opposition National Democratic Congress to send a delegation to Taiwan in August was strongly criticized by the government.

David Renwick

▪ 2006

Area:
344 sq km (133 sq mi)
Population
(2005 est.): 103,000
Capital:
Saint George's
Chief of state:
Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Sir Daniel Williams
Head of government:
Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      Following the devastation wrought by Hurricane Ivan in September 2004, the International Monetary Fund noted in February 2005 that the Grenadan economy remained in a difficult state. The country could achieve only 1% growth in 2005, and restoring its economy would require extraordinary reconstruction expenditures.

      Grenada began to enjoy the fruits of diplomatic relations with China, which offered in March to rebuild its national stadium, damaged extensively by Ivan. In July China put Grenada on its list of approved destinations for Chinese tourists. An offer of $50 million in aid from Taiwan did not induce the Grenadan government to continue to maintain links with Taipei.

      The commission of inquiry into allegations of wrongdoing by Prime Minister Keith Mitchell during his 2000 visit to EU countries and Kuwait commenced hearings in June. Mitchell was alleged to have accepted improper payments of $187,265 from Eric Resteiner, Grenada's former trade representative. Mitchell insisted that the money was for reimbursement of legitimate expenses but agreed to take part in the inquiry in an effort to clear his name. In September the opposition National Democratic Congress accused the government of spying on its MPs.

      In July Grenada was hit by Hurricane Emily, which caused approximately $175 million in damages to crops and buildings; an estimated 90% of the bananas planted after Ivan were destroyed by Emily.

David Renwick

▪ 2005

Area:
344 sq km (133 sq mi)
Population
(2004 est.): 103,000
Capital:
Saint George's
Chief of state:
Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Sir Daniel Williams
Head of government:
Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      Hurricane Ivan wreaked havoc in Grenada in September 2004, causing the deaths of at least 39 people and wiping out almost all the country's agriculture-based economic infrastructure as well as much of its tourism facilities. An estimated 90% of the homes were damaged, including the prime minister's official residence; the prison housing those responsible for the 1983 murder of former prime minister Maurice Bishop and several of his top officials was also damaged extensively, which allowed prisoners to escape. Overall, the damages were estimated at about $815 million. The hurricane banished any hope of Grenada's achieving the IMF forecast of 4% economic growth and a decline in the public-debt–GDP ratio during 2004.

      In May the opposition National Democratic Congress called on Prime Minister Keith Mitchell to step down so that a proper inquiry could be conducted into charges that he had accepted $500,000 from Eric Resteiner, a German national, in exchange for Resteiner's appointment as a trade ambassador for Grenada. Mitchell strongly denied the accusations, though he did admit to having received $15,000 to cover legitimate expenses on behalf of the state. He also brought a libel suit against a Miami, Fla.-based online newsletter, which had first reported the allegations, but in July he agreed to set up an inquiry after Grenada's Chamber of Industry and Commerce pressed the issue.

      A South Korean delegation visited the country in June to assess investment opportunities and joint ventures, including possible exploration for oil and gas.

David Renwick

▪ 2004

Area:
344 sq km (133 sq mi)
Population
(2003 est.): 102,000
Capital:
Saint George's
Chief of state:
Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Sir Daniel Williams
Head of government:
Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      The International Monetary Fund approved an emergency $4 million loan for Grenada in January 2003 to help cover the foreign- exchange costs associated with the restoration of physical assets that had been destroyed by a tropical storm in September 2002. Damage caused to the country's economic infrastructure, commercial and private property, and agriculture amounted to almost 2% of gross domestic product. Almost a third of agricultural export income was lost.

      After having passed the necessary anti-money-laundering laws, Grenada was removed in February and May, respectively, from the “blacklists” imposed by the Paris-based Financial Action Task Force and the U.S. Department of the Treasury's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. By midyear only five offshore banks were still operating locally.

      Grenada was added to the list of Caribbean territories enjoying a competitive telecommunications environment; the Irish company Digicel began operating a cellular service alongside traditional provider Cable & Wireless.

      The opposition Grenada United Labour Party (GULP) suffered a setback in August when the police arrested its parliamentary leader, Michael Baptiste, for having allegedly defrauded the New National Party (NNP) government of $80,000 during his tenure (1997–99) as agriculture minister. He later quit the NNP to join the GULP; his lawyers contended that the charge was “politically motivated.”

      In the general election in November, the NNP barely held onto office, winning 8 seats in the House of Representatives to the 7 seats secured by the National Democratic Congress. NNP leader Keith Mitchell thus retained the prime ministership for a third consecutive term.

David Renwick

▪ 2003

Area:
344 sq km (133 sq mi)
Population
(2002 est.): 101,000
Capital:
Saint George's
Chief of state:
Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Daniel Williams
Head of government:
Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      In February 2002 Grenada was removed from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD's) list of “uncooperative” tax havens after it had made a commitment to transparency in the regulation of its offshore banking system and agreed to “effective exchange of information” on tax matters.

      A major initiative toward advancing the fortunes of Grenada's cruise industry was taken in June when the Port Authority entered into an agreement with a Swiss company to participate in the establishment of a new cruise complex in the capital, St. George's. Switzerland's Zueblin Group agreed to spend up to $125 million on commercial facilities associated with the complex, while the Port Authority would contribute $25 million for the port itself. In the same month, the European Union announced an $8 million loan to boost tourism in Grenada and develop a marketing plan for small hotels.

      Four questionable offshore banks were shut down in September as the government strove to improve the image of an industry that had been under attack in recent years not only by the OECD but by the Financial Action Task Force. Grenada had revoked the licenses of 36 offshore banks since February 2001, and only 9 remained in operation in 2002.

David Renwick

▪ 2002

Area:
344 sq km (133 sq mi)
Population
(2001 est.): 102,000
Capital:
Saint George's
Chief of state:
Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Daniel Williams
Head of government:
Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      Grenada was as active as any other Caribbean state against undesirable offshore banks in 2001, closing down 17 in one day in March. They were all linked to the First International Bank of Grenada, which collapsed in October 2000, taking $150 million worth of mainly American depositors' money along with it. A U.S. Senate committee had described First International as “one of the most notorious rogue banks” in the Caribbean offshore industry. In June another six banks had their licenses to operate canceled.

      Despite its actions against offshore banks, Grenada was added in September to the list of countries deemed by the Paris-based Financial Action Task Force (FATF) to have failed in cooperating with international efforts to stop money laundering. The FATF described Grenada's system for dealing with money laundering as having “serious deficiencies.” The task force pointed out that regulators in Grenada did not have adequate access to customer account information and lacked the authority to cooperate with overseas counterparts. The government reacted angrily, calling the FATF decision “shocking.”

      Also in September Grenada's UN ambassador, Lamuel Stanislaus, urged the UN to restore Taiwan's membership in the world body, which had been revoked in 1971. In common with other small Caribbean countries, Grenada was a recipient of generous Taiwanese aid.

David Renwick

▪ 2001

Area:
344 sq km (133 sq mi)
Population
(2000 est.): 102,000
Capital:
Saint George's
Chief of state:
Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Daniel Williams
Head of government:
Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      In March 2000 Phyllis Coard—who along with her husband, Bernard Coard, and 15 others serving life sentences for the 1983 murder of former Grenadan prime minister Maurice Bishop and many of his close supporters—was temporarily released from prison on compassionate grounds and allowed to seek treatment in her native Jamaica for colon cancer.

      In April the government appointed a Truth and Reconciliation Commission—patterned after a similar body in South Africa that investigated apartheid-era crimes—to inquire into the cataclysmic political events that had occurred on the island from January 1976 to December 1991. The period covered the last years of the controversial government of the late Sir Eric Gairy, his forcible removal from office in 1979, and the subsequent rule of the Bishop regime, which came to grief at the hands of its own extreme left-wing element. The lengthy trial and conviction of Bernard Coard and his coconspirators would also be part of the commission's brief.

      After being sacked from the cabinet, Michael Baptiste—a junior agriculture minister in the New National Party government— became an opposition of one in Parliament in June.

      A diplomatic furor of sorts erupted in September when China's ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago was deported hours after arriving in Grenada, which still recognized Taiwan as the legitimate Chinese government.

David Renwick

▪ 2000

Area:
344 sq km (133 sq mi)
Population
(1999 est.): 101,000
Capital:
Saint George's
Chief of state:
Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Daniel Williams
Head of government:
Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      The incumbent New National Party (NNP), headed by Prime Minister Keith Mitchell, won all 15 seats in the House of Representatives in the January 1999 general election. The election had been forced on the government after it lost its parliamentary majority two months earlier, following the resignation of Foreign Minister Raphael Fletcher. The agreement between the two main opposition parties—the National Democratic Congress (NDC) and United Labour (UL), an alliance between the Grenada United Labour Party and the Democratic Labour Party—to refrain from running against each other in certain constituencies did little to assist their fortunes. At dissolution of the previous parliament, the NNP had seven seats, the NDC four, the two UL parties three, and there was one independent. NDC leader George Brizan, a former prime minister, announced his retirement from politics for health reasons shortly after the election.

      The new administration presented its 1999–2000 budget in March, providing for expenditures of EC$438.8 million (about U.S. $162.5 million). No new taxes were imposed. Major capital expenditure items included a new cruise ship terminal and expansion of the airport.

      Grenada, like other Caribbean territories, ran into trouble with offshore banks during the year, and in April Mitchell was obliged to request U.S. and British assistance in investigating the affairs of one bank, First International. A new statutory body, the International Business and Finance Corporation, was set up in September to regulate the offshore financial sector in place of the Ministry of Finance.

David Renwick

▪ 1999

      Area: 344 sq km (133 sq mi)

      Population (1998 est.): 100,000

      Capital: Saint George's

      Chief of state: Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Daniel Williams

      Head of government: Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      Following the death in 1997 of its founder, Sir Eric Gairy, the opposition Grenada United Labour Party, the country's longest-existing political group, found itself a new president in April 1998. He was Herbert Preudhomme, a Gairy loyalist and former deputy prime minister. Gairy's death triggered a power struggle within the party, which by the end of 1998 had not yet been fully resolved.

      Cuban Pres. Fidel Castro paid a well-received visit to Grenada in early August as part of a three-nation tour of the English-speaking Caribbean. His strong support of a previous regime that had espoused socialist causes and deprived Grenadans of many of their freedoms appeared to have been forgotten. Only the opposition Democratic Labour Party publicly opposed the visit, demanding changes in Cuba's human rights record. Prime Minister Keith Mitchell, however, seemed prepared to overlook the Castro regime's less-attractive features and insisted that most Caribbean governments were prepared to accept Cuba "without changes." Castro's willingness to provide aid to the English-speaking Caribbean was compared favourably with the continual whittling down of U.S. assistance. Grenada was offered 50 more scholarships to Cuban universities during the visit.

DAVID RENWICK

▪ 1998

      Area: 344 sq km (133 sq mi)

      Population (1997 est.): 98,400

      Capital: Saint George's

      Chief of state: Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Daniel Williams

      Head of government: Prime Minister Keith Mitchell

      In March 1997 the Grenadan government's Mercy Committee, a government-appointed body that adjudicates requests for leniency for those convicted of murder, rejected a request from the Conference of Churches of Grenada that Phyllis Coard and Colville (Kamau) McBarnette—2 of the 14 people serving life sentences for the October 1983 murder of Prime Minister Maurice Bishop—be released from prison on humanitarian grounds. The Jamaica-born Coard—wife of Bishop's deputy Bernard Coard, who led the rebellion against Bishop and who was also serving a life sentence—was said to be experiencing severe psychiatric disorder, and McBarnette was described as suffering from persistent abdominal pains. Most Grenadans strongly opposed any leniency for Bishop's killers.

      Grenada's relations with Cuba, which had been broken following the ouster by U.S. troops in 1983 of the extreme left-wing group that had seized power from Bishop, were fully restored in April when Prime Minister Keith Mitchell paid an official visit to Cuban Pres. Fidel Castro, during which an economic cooperation agreement was signed. Cuba had extended substantial assistance to Grenada during the Bishop regime, the outstanding example being the multimillion-dollar international airport.

      Grenada's veteran politician and former prime minister Sir Eric Gairy died in August.) (Gairy, Sir Eric Matthew ) He founded the Grenada United Labour Party and a labour union, and the working class became his main support base.

DAVID RENWICK

      This article updates Grenada.

▪ 1997

      A constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth, Grenada (with its dependency, the Southern Grenadines) is situated in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Area: 344 sq km (133 sq mi). Pop. (1996 est.): 97,900. Cap.: Saint George's. Monetary unit: Eastern Caribbean dollar, with (Oct. 11, 1996) a par value of EC$2.70 to U.S. $1 (free rate of EC$4.25 = £ 1 sterling). Queen, Elizabeth II; governors-general in 1996, Reginald Palmer and, from August 8, Daniel Williams; prime minister, Keith Mitchell.

      The commission of inquiry into the previous government's privatization of the Grenada Electricity Co. (Grenlec) began work in January 1996. The present New National Party government alleged "misuse of funds" in the privatization process.

      In February it was announced that earnings from the cocoa crop would decline by EC$1.7 million to EC$7.8 million in 1996 because of the decision by a major U.S. buyer to stop importing Grenada cocoa. The 1996 crop was estimated at 1,588 metric tons.

      In May the government signed two treaties with the U.S. covering mutual legal assistance and extradition. The treaties formed part of the campaign against drug trafficking in the region. (DAVID RENWICK)

      This article updates Grenada.

▪ 1996

      A constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth, Grenada (with its dependency, the Southern Grenadines) is in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Area: 344 sq km (133 sq mi). Pop. (1995 est.): 92,000. Cap.: Saint George's. Monetary unit: Eastern Caribbean dollar, with (Oct. 6, 1995) a par value of EC$2.70 to U.S. $1 (free rate of EC$4.27 = £1 sterling). Queen, Elizabeth II; governor-general in 1995, Reginald Palmer; prime ministers, Nicholas Brathwaite, George Brizan from February 1, and, from June 22, Keith Mitchell.

      In June 1995 the incumbent National Democratic Congress (NDC) government lost the general election to the New National Party (NNP), and Keith Mitchell, a 47-year-old former mathematics lecturer at Howard University, Washington, D.C., became the new prime minister. The NNP won 8 of the 15 parliamentary seats. Five were retained by the NDC, and two went to the Grenada United Labour Party, led by Sir Eric Gairy, who was prime minister of Grenada in 1979, when the left-wing New Jewel Movement, headed by Maurice Bishop, overthrew the government.

      The NNP's victory no doubt owed something to its promise to abolish the income tax. The tax had been dropped in 1986 but was reintroduced by the NDC in 1994.

      Grenada stepped up its fight against drug trafficking in February when it signed an assistance treaty with Britain that provided for the tracing, freezing, and confiscation of the assets of drug pushers. A series of strikes in key foreign exchange-earning industries, including hotels, sugar, and cocoa, took place in March and April.

      A more serious threat was posed to the nutmeg industry by the sustained fall in prices on world markets. Grenada and Indonesia were the world's main nutmeg suppliers, and the two got together in May to continue efforts begun in 1994 to stabilize the price and encourage greater use of nutmeg. World demand had fallen to 9,000 metric tons in 1994, compared with production of 14,000 metric tons.

      (DAVID RENWICK)

      This updates the article Grenada.

▪ 1995

      A constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth, Grenada (with its dependency, the Southern Grenadines) is in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Area: 344 sq km (133 sq mi). Pop. (1994 est.): 91,800. Cap.: Saint George's. Monetary unit: Eastern Caribbean dollar, with (Oct. 7, 1994) a par value of EC$2.70 to U.S. $1 (free rate of EC$4.30 = £1 sterling). Queen, Elizabeth II; governor-general in 1994, Reginald Palmer; prime minister, Nicholas Brathwaite.

      The National Democratic Congress (NDC) party learned in July 1994 that it would lose its leader, Prime Minister Nicholas Brathwaite, before the next general election, constitutionally due by March 1995. He announced that he would step down in the near future.

      This was a further blow to the NDC, already unpopular after it reintroduced an income tax on individuals in its 1994 budget in January. The income tax had been abolished by a previous government in 1986, but successive administrations found that indirect taxation did not produce sufficient revenue to meet the country's needs. The new tax rates ranged from 10% to 30%, with the first EC$10,000 of income being tax exempt.

      Some additional income did come the government's way in 1994 through asset sales. It concluded negotiations with Guinness Brewing Ltd. in March for the sale of a controlling interest in Grenada Breweries for EC$3.2 million.

      Infrastructural improvements continued during the year. In February OPEC and the Kuwait development fund agreed to provide EC$27 million to upgrade Grenada's road and sea defense system.

      In May the government reached what could prove to be a key agreement with Indonesia for informal collaboration in stabilizing the world price of nutmeg, one of Grenada's most important export earners. The two countries were the world's main nutmeg producers. (DAVID RENWICK)

      This updates the article Grenada.

▪ 1994

      A constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth, Grenada (with its dependency, the Southern Grenadines) is in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Area: 344 sq km (133 sq mi). Pop. (1993 est.): 91,000. Cap.: Saint George's. Monetary unit: Eastern Caribbean dollar, with (Oct. 4, 1993) a par value of EC$2.70 to U.S. $1 (free rate of EC$4.10 = £1 sterling). Queen, Elizabeth II; governor-general in 1993, Reginald Palmer; prime minister, Nicholas Brathwaite.

      Public employees received the news in January 1993 that 700 of them would lose their jobs as part of the effort to reduce government spending. The alternative was an austerity program imposed by the International Monetary Fund, something Prime Minister Nicholas Brathwaite and the National Democratic Congress government had been trying for years to avoid.

      Grenada's ailing economy was given a boost in April when the announcement was made that a $30 million, 300-room resort hotel and marina were to be built on Hog Island. The tourist trade, however, continued to be so bedeviled by the rising crime rate that government spokesmen expressed fears that officials in the United States would issue a negative travel advisory.

      The government attempted to improve the climate for investment in May when it had the Trade Disputes, Arbitration and Inquiry Act amended by Parliament. An independent tribunal would be able to make "binding and final" rulings to bring labour disputes to an end when the country's economic interests were threatened.

      In June Grenada moved in concert with Indonesia to force up the world price of its main commodity export by destroying 700 metric tons of nutmegs. The artificial shortfall so created was meant to get the nutmeg price back to about $3,000 a ton. (DAVID RENWICK)

      This updates the article Grenada.

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Introduction
byname  Isle of Spice,  
Grenada, flag of island of the West Indies. It is the southernmost of the Lesser Antilles, lying in the eastern Caribbean Sea about 100 miles (160 kilometres) north of the coast of Venezuela. Oval in shape, the island is approximately 21 miles (34 kilometres) long and 12 miles wide. The southern Grenadines—the largest of which is Carriacou, about 20 miles north-northeast, with an area of 13 square miles—are a dependency.

      The capital, St. George's (Saint George's), on the southwest coast, is also the main port, having a fine natural harbour as well as picturesque pastel-coloured houses that rise up the hillsides from the waterfront. The waterfront itself is known as the Carenage because island schooners were once careened (beached for cleaning or repair) there. St. George's is the yachting and charter-boat centre of the eastern Caribbean.

      In 1974 Grenada attained independence within the Commonwealth and membership in the United Nations. It was the first of the six West Indies Associated States to do so.

Physical and human geography

The land
  Grenada is volcanic in origin, with a ridge of mountains running north and south—the steeper slopes to the west and a more gradual incline to the east and southeast. The highest point is Mount St. Catherine (2,757 feet [840 metres]) in the northern part of the interior. The landscape is scenic, with fairly deep, steep-sided valleys and about 10,000 acres (4,000 hectares) of forest.

Drainage and soils
      Several short, swiftly flowing streams supply all towns and most villages with piped clean water. A further source of water is Grand Etang, a lake covering 36 acres in the crater of an extinct volcano at an elevation of 1,740 feet. The fertile soils are chiefly volcanic, with some limestone in the north.

      The island has equable temperatures varying with altitude and averaging 82° F (28° C). Rainfall is adequate, except in the Point Salines area in the southwest; it varies from an average of 60 inches (1,500 millimetres) in coastal districts to more than 150 inches in the mountainous regions. The rainy season lasts from June to December. November is the wettest month, but showers occur frequently during the other months. Grenada lies south of the usual track of hurricanes, but when they do occur, as in 1955, 1979, and 1980, they often cause extensive damage.

Plant and animal life
      The island is verdant, with a year-round growing season and a wide variety of tropical fruits, flowering shrubs, and ferns. There are also forests of teak, mahogany, saman (known as the rain tree), and blue mahoe (a strong-fibred tree) in the interior.

      The animal life is varied and includes such wild animals as the mona monkey (a small, long-tailed, West African species that was introduced by slaves), the manicou (a species of opossum), the agouti (a rabbit-sized rodent, which is brown or grizzled in colour), the iguana, the mongoose, and a variety of turtles and land crabs.

The people (Grenada)
      Most of the population is black, having descended from African slaves, and there is a large minority of mulattoes and other mixtures. There are also small minorities of East Indians, descendants of indentured labourers brought to replace the freed slaves; descendants of the old French and British settlers; and more recent immigrants from North America and Europe. Although English is the accepted language, a form of patois is still spoken by older people in the villages. A majority of the population is Roman Catholic; other Christian denominations include Anglicans (more than a fifth of the population), Methodists, and Seventh-day Adventists. Although Grenada is densely populated, its population grew slowly during the 20th century.

The economy
      Agriculture and tourism are the most important sectors of the economy, although fishing and agriculturally based industries are becoming more significant. Grenada relies on financial support from the United Kingdom and other sources to bolster the economy.

      To a greater extent than in most West Indian islands, Grenada's arable land is divided into small holdings on which peasant proprietors cultivate diversified crops. Because of these small holdings and the generally hilly terrain, mechanical tilling is rare. The major agricultural export crops—cocoa, bananas, nutmeg, and mace—in the past were controlled by cooperative associations, but these associations have begun to come under greater government control. Banana exports depend upon preferential terms given by the United Kingdom and are affected by the policies of the European Community. Exports of mace and lime juice provide substantial earnings. Copra and, increasingly, other products processed from the coconut are also exported, and a wide variety of tropical fruits—mangoes, passion fruit, guavas, tamarind, and citrus fruits—are grown. The government has encouraged increased production of staple vegetables, such as peas, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and corn (maize).

      The island's forests yield mostly teak and mahogany, and the government has worked to upgrade fishing.

Industry and trade
      Tourism, a major factor in the island's economy, has been encouraged by the government. Air transport facilities have been improved, and the harbour is visited by numerous cruise ships. Other sources of employment are such secondary industries as clothing manufacture, sugar milling, brewing, rum distilling (a strong white rum being made for local consumption), food canning, copra processing, cigarette manufacturing, and soapmaking. There is a cotton ginnery on Carriacou.

      The United Kingdom is Grenada's principal trading partner. Exports go largely to Trinidad and Tobago, the United Kingdom, Germany, and The Netherlands; most imports come from the United Kingdom, the United States, and Trinidad and Tobago.

      Bus service is available between the larger towns and villages. An international airport at Point Salines was inaugurated in 1984. Pearls Airport—providing service to nearby islands with connecting flights to Venezuela—is located on the northeastern coast. An airport on Carriacou also provides flights to nearby islands.

      The harbour at St. George's has berths for oceangoing vessels, as well as a yacht basin and service facilities. Several shipping lines maintain regular passenger and cargo services to North America, the United Kingdom, Europe, and neighbouring West Indian islands.

Administration and social conditions
      Grenada is governed as a constitutional monarchy, with the British monarch represented by a governor-general as the nominal head of state. Executive authority is vested in a prime minister, who is the head of the majority party in the elected House of Representatives, the lower house of the two-chamber legislature. The Senate is appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister and the opposition leader.

      School attendance is not compulsory, although primary and secondary education is free. Grenada has vocational and technical schools as well as the St. George's University School of Medicine and a branch of the University of the West Indies.

Health and welfare
      Grenada has several main health centres, as well as district medical stations. Medical and dental treatment in government hospitals and clinics is free. The government has launched a program to eradicate malaria and mongoose-spread rabies.

Culture
      The Grenada National Museum in St. George's is dedicated to archaeology and history and houses the Grenada Historical Society. Two Grenadian artists, Elinus Cato and Canute Caliste, have achieved international recognition for their primitive-style paintings. Several weekly newspapers are published, and islandwide radio and television broadcasting is available.

History
       Grenada was sighted by Christopher Columbus on Aug. 15, 1498, when he sailed past the island without landing and gave it the name of Concepción. The origin of the name Grenada remains obscure. After its discovery, Grenada was dominated for 150 years by the warlike Carib Indians, who had earlier killed off the more peaceful Arawak. In 1609 British merchants attempted to form a settlement, but the Caribs forced them to leave.

French settlement
      The French governor of Martinique, Jacques-Dyel du Parquet, purchased Grenada from a French company in 1650 and established a settlement at St. George's. Grenada remained French until 1762, when it capitulated to the British. It was formally ceded to Britain in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris (Paris, Treaty of). In 1779 it was recaptured by the French, but it was restored to Britain in 1783.

British rule
      In the late 18th century the British imported large numbers of slaves from Africa to work the sugar plantations. During 1795 and 1796, when French policy favoured the abolition of slavery, a rebellion against British rule occurred, led by a French planter and supported by the French in Martinique. The rebels massacred a number of the British, including the lieutenant governor, but the uprising was quelled. The emancipation of the slaves finally took effect in 1833.

      Grenada was headquarters of the British Windward Islands government from 1885 until 1958, when Grenada joined the West Indies Federation. The federation ended in 1962, after which Grenada attempted to federate with the remaining territories in the Windward Islands, as well as with Barbados and the Leeward Islands. On March 3, 1967, however, the island became a self-governing state in association with the United Kingdom.

Independence
      In the general election of August 1967, the Grenada United Labour Party (GULP) defeated the Grenada National Party (GNP) and took office under the premiership of Eric M. Gairy, a trade unionist. Grenada became an independent nation on Feb. 7, 1974. The transition was marked by violence, strikes, and controversy centring upon Gairy, who was named prime minister. Opposition to Gairy's rule continued to mount, and a coalition called the New Jewel Movement (NJM), along with other opposition parties, succeeded in reducing GULP's majority in Parliament in the 1976 election. On March 13, 1979, while Gairy was out of the country, the NJM staged a bloodless coup, proclaimed a People's Revolutionary Government (PRG), and named their leader, Maurice Bishop, as prime minister. The new government faced opposition from Western nations because of its socialist principles, but it embarked on a program to rebuild the economy, which had been left in disarray by Gairy. The PRG administration was ended in October 1983 by a military coup, during which Bishop was killed.

      Less than a week later, on October 25, a U.S.-led invasion of the island overthrew the coup leaders and returned power to the governor-general, Sir Paul Scoon. In December Scoon appointed Nicholas Braithwaite, a former Commonwealth official, to head a governing council until an election could be held, and constitutional government was restored. A peacekeeping force remained until 1985. The election, held in December 1984, was won by the New National Party headed by Herbert A. Blaize (Blaize, Herbert Augustus), who had led the government in the 1960s. The new government sought to revive tourism, but Grenada's continuing economic problems throughout the late 1980s contributed to the government's dwindling popularity. Following an election in March 1990, Braithwaite, whose National Democratic Congress fell one seat shy of a parliamentary majority, was appointed prime minister by Scoon.

Eric V.B. Britter Ed.

Additional Reading
There are few works that treat all the islands of the Lesser Antilles or describe a particular island comprehensively, although a number of broad overviews are listed in the earlier section on the region. An informative geologic survey, covering locations from both the Lesser Antilles and the Netherlands Antilles, is offered in J.H. Westermann and H. Kiel, The Geology of Saba and St. Eustatius, with Notes on the Geology of St. Kitts, Nevis, and Montserrat, Lesser Antilles (1961). Guy Lasserre, La Guadeloupe: Étude géographique, 3 vol. (1978), is a detailed geography. Studies of flora include Clarissa Thérèse Kimber, Martinique Revisited: The Changing Plant Geographies of a West Indian Island (1988); and David Watts, Man's Influence on the Vegetation of Barbados, 1627 to 1800 (1966).The people of Barbados are discussed in Jill Sheppard, The “Redlegs” of Barbados, Their Origins and History (1977), which explores the history of indentured servants; Farley Brathwaite (ed.), The Elderly in Barbados (1986), a survey of social and economic conditions of the elderly; and Graham M.S. Dann (ed.), Everyday in Barbados: A Sociological Perspective (1976), which discusses social structures and recreational activity. Jean Benoist (ed.), L'Archipel inachevé: culture et société aux Antilles françaises (1972), is an anthropological study of the French islands of Martinique, Guadeloupe, La Désirade, Marie-Galante, and Saint-Barthélemy. Stuart B. Philpott, West Indian Migration: The Montserrat Case (1973), explores the impact of migration on village population. Bonham C. Richardson, Caribbean Migrants: Environment and Human Survival on St. Kitts and Nevis (1983), focuses on migration as a response to degradation of environment. Karen Fog Olwig, Cultural Adaptation and Resistance on St. John: Three Centuries of Afro-Caribbean Life (1985), examines the society of one of the Virgin Islands.Analyses of economic conditions include Delisle Worrell (ed.), The Economy of Barbados, 1946–1980 (1982), a study of the trends of the major sectors; Bonham C. Richardson, Panama Money in Barbados, 1900–1920 (1985), which discusses the impact of remittances on a wide range of economic activities and social attitudes; Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Peasants and Capital: Dominica in the World Economy (1988), which explores patterns of land ownership and agricultural production; and C. Bourne, E.R. Lefranc, and F. Nunes (compilers), Small Farming in the Less Developed Countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean (1980), which provides information on Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Montserrat, and Antigua. Studies of individual island-state economies include John S. Brierley, Small Farming in Grenada, West Indies (1974); Deirdre M. Kelly, Hard Work, Hard Choices: A Survey of Women in St. Lucia's Export-Oriented Electronics Factories (1987); and Hymie Rubenstein, Coping With Poverty: Adaptive Strategies in a Caribbean Village (1987).Historical works which concentrate mostly on slavery and plantation life include the following: Vincent T. Harlow, A History of Barbados, 1625–1685 (1926, reprinted 1969), an examination of the period of the early British colonies; Gary A. Puckrein, Little England: Plantation Society and Anglo-Barbadian Politics, 1627–1700 (1984), a revisionist economic history, particularly strong on the creolizing process; Hilary Beckles, Black Rebellion in Barbados: The Struggle Against Slavery, 1627–1838 (1984), a provocative interpretation of slave resistance. Jerome S. Handler, The Unappropriated People: Freedmen in the Slave Society of Barbados (1974), which fills a gap in historiography; Karl Watson, The Civilised Island, Barbados: A Social History, 1750–1816 (1979), a study of the mature slave society; Claude Levy, Emancipation, Sugar, and Federalism: Barbados and the West Indies, 1833–1876 (1980), on postslavery adjustments; Gordon C. Merrill, The Historical Geography of St. Kitts and Nevis, the West Indies (1958), which discusses the colonial period on the islands; Lennox Honychurch, The Dominica Story: A History of the Island, 2nd ed. (1984), a well-illustrated study covering developments up to the 1980s and benefiting from the author's personal involvement in the constitutional changes leading to independence; and George Brizan, Grenada, Island of Conflict: From Amerindians to People's Revolution, 1498–1979 (1984), the work of a Grenadian historian and politician.

      city, seat (1870) of Grenada county, north-central Mississippi, U.S. It lies along the Yalobusha River at the eastern edge of the Mississippi River valley, 111 miles (179 km) north of Jackson. It was formed in 1836 by the merger of Tullahoma and Pittsburg, two villages established by rival speculators in 1833. During the American Civil War, General John C. Pemberton (Pemberton, John Clifford) of the Confederacy established his headquarters in Grenada while resisting General Ulysses S. Grant (Grant, Ulysses S.)'s Union troops at Vicksburg in 1862.

      Grenada's economy is based on manufacturing, including heating and refrigeration equipment, hosiery, newsprint, automotive parts, and wood products. Timber and agriculture (cotton and soybeans) are also important. Grenada Lake, impounded on the Yalobusha, is the site of Hugh White State Park; Holly Springs National Forest is immediately to the north. Inc. 1836. Pop. (1990) 10,864; (2000) 14,879.

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Universalium. 2010.

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