Gregory XIII


Gregory XIII
(Ugo Buoncompagni) 1502-85, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1572-85, educator and innovator of the modern calendar.

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orig. Ugo Buoncompagni

born June 7, 1502, Bologna, Romagna
died April 10, 1585, Rome, Papal States

Pope (1572–85) who promulgated the Gregorian calendar.

After teaching at the University of Bologna, he served as a delegate to the Council of Trent, became a cardinal in 1565, and was elected pope in 1572. A promoter of the Counter-Reformation, he sought to execute the reform decrees of the council. He compiled the Index librorum prohibitorum and founded several colleges and seminaries, delegating their direction to the Jesuits. Aided by an astronomer and a mathematician, he corrected the errors in the Julian calendar and issued the Gregorian calendar (1582), which was later adopted worldwide.

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pope
original name  Ugo Boncompagni , or  Buoncompagni 
born June 7, 1502, Bologna, Romagna [Italy]
died April 10, 1585, Rome, Papal States
 pope from 1572 to 1585, who promulgated the Gregorian calendar and founded a system of seminaries for Roman Catholic priests.

      Educated at the University of Bologna, he taught jurisprudence there from 1531 to 1539. Because of his expertise in canon law, he was sent by Pope Pius IV in 1561 to the Council of Trent (Trent, Council of) (Trento, Italy), where he remained until 1563. Pius made him cardinal in 1565 and emissary to Spain. He was elected pope on May 14, 1572, succeeding St. Pius V.

      Gregory began promoting church reform and the Counter-Reformation by pledging to execute the reforming decrees of the Council of Trent. He appointed committees of cardinals to investigate abuses among ecclesiastics and to draft the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (“Index of Forbidden Books”). To carry out the council's decree ordering the establishment of seminaries, he founded several colleges and seminaries, including the Gregorian University, and delegated their direction to the Jesuits, whom he patronized. These schools trained missionaries for those countries that had established Protestant state religions.

      Gregory is often criticized for backing the Irish rebels against the anti-Catholic actions of Queen Elizabeth I of England and for his reaction to the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day (Saint Bartholomew's Day, Massacre of), the slaughter of Huguenots (French Protestants) that began in Paris on August 24, 1572, and spread throughout France. He celebrated the massacre with a Te Deum (hymn of praise to God) at Rome.

      Aided chiefly by the Neapolitan astronomer and physician Luigi Lilio Ghiraldi (d. 1576) and the German Jesuit and mathematician Christopher Clavius, Gregory corrected the errors of the Julian calendar created by Julius Caesar in 46. The new Gregorian calendar, introduced on February 24, 1582, in the bull Inter gravissimas (“In the gravest concern”), advanced the date by 10 days (October 4 was to be followed by October 15 that year) and relied on a new method of calculating leap years. Although the reform was welcomed by such astronomers as Johannes Kepler (Kepler, Johannes) and Tycho Brahe (Brahe, Tycho) and by the Catholic princes of Europe, many Protestants (Protestantism) saw it as the work of the Antichrist and refused to adopt it. The Gregorian calendar was gradually accepted by the countries of Europe, though Russia did not accept it until 1918.

      Gregory's building program, including the Quirinal Palace in Rome, along with his political ventures, together exhausted the papal treasury, causing serious repercussions in the Papal States.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Gregory XIII —     Pope Gregory XIII     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Gregory XIII     (UGO BUONCOMPAGNI).     Born at Bologna, 7 Jan., 1502; died at Rome, 10 April, 1585. He studied jurisprudence at the University of Bologna, from which he was graduated at… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Gregory XIII — (1502 85) ↑Pope from 1572 until his death. He is famous for changing the system of calculating the days of the year, by introducing the ↑Gregorian Calendar in 1582 …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Gregory XIII — (1502–85)    Pope.    Gregory was born Ugo Buoncompagni in Bologna, Italy. After a legal training, he was appointed to a judgeship in Rome and he later became a jurist at the Council of Trent. He was ordained at the age of forty, was consecrated… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Gregory XIII — noun the pope who sponsored the introduction of the modern calendar (1572 1585) • Syn: ↑Gregory, ↑Ugo Buoncompagni • Derivationally related forms: ↑Gregorian (for: ↑Gregory) • Instance Hypernyms …   Useful english dictionary

  • GREGORY XIII —    born in Bologna; was skilled in canon law; distinguished himself in the Council of Trent, and by his zeal against the Protestants; celebrated the Bartholomew Massacre by public thanksgivings in Rome, and reformed the calendar …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Gregory XIII — /ˈgrɛgəri/ (say greguhree) noun (Ugo Buoncompagni), 1502–85, Italian ecclesiastic; pope 1572–85; devised modern calendar …   Australian English dictionary

  • Gregory XIII, Pope — • Reigned 1572 1585 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pope Gregory XIII —     Pope Gregory XIII     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Gregory XIII     (UGO BUONCOMPAGNI).     Born at Bologna, 7 Jan., 1502; died at Rome, 10 April, 1585. He studied jurisprudence at the University of Bologna, from which he was graduated at… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pope Gregory XIII — Infobox pope English name=Gregory XIII|Latin name=Dude PP. XIII birth name=Ugo Boncompagni term start=May 13, 1572|term end=April 10, 1585 predecessor=Pius V|successor=Sixtus V birth date=January 7, 1502|birthplace=Bologna, Italy dead=dead death… …   Wikipedia

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