Graz


Graz
/grddahts/, n.
a city in SE Austria. 243,405.

* * *

City (pop., 2001: 226,424), capital of Steiermark (Styria) state, southeastern Austria.

The country's second largest city, it lies on the Mur River at the foot of the Styrian Alps. It grew from a fortress settlement and received town rights с AD 1240. It became the centre of Steiermark during the Middle Ages and was the residence of the Leopoldine Habsburgs after 1379. Its fortifications, built in the 15th and 16th centuries, successfully withstood numerous sieges by Hungarians and Turks; the fortifications were converted into parks in the 19th century. Astronomer Johannes Kepler taught at its university, founded in 1585. A rail and industrial centre, Graz has an active trade in agricultural products; tourism is also important.

* * *

 city, capital of Bundesland (federal state) Steiermark, southeastern Austria. The country's second largest city, it lies on the Mur River between the Styrian Alps and a wide, fertile basin, the Grazerfeld, about 95 miles (155 km) south-southwest of Vienna. In the 9th century there was probably a fortress on the Schlossberg (“Castle Hill”), a rocky cone some 1,550 feet (470 metres) high that dominates the city. The name Graz is derived from gradec, a Slavic word meaning “small fortress.” First mentioned about 1128–29, it received town rights about 1240 and became the centre of Steiermark (Styria) during the Middle Ages and the residence of the Leopoldine Habsburgs after 1379. Its fortifications, built in the 15th–16th century, successfully withstood numerous sieges by the Hungarians and the Turks. Protestantism was established in Graz about 1530 and flourished until oppressive measures by the archduke Karl of Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia, Carniola) restored the authority of Rome. During the Napoleonic Wars, Graz was held by the French in 1797, 1805, and 1809. A trade centre in the 17th and 18th centuries, it developed even more rapidly in the 19th century through the interest of the archduke Johann and was constituted a city in 1850.

      The Schlossberg fortifications were blown up by the French in 1809, in accord with the provisions of the Treaty of Schönbrunn (Schönbrunn, Treaty of), and the site was laid out with parks after 1839. The clock tower (1559) and the belfry (1588) survive as prominent landmarks. The most notable buildings are in the old section—designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1999—and include the Renaissance Landhaus (the meetinghouse of the Styrian estates); the armoury (1643–45), with a unique historical collection of armour and weapons; the town hall (1888–93); the 11th-century castle with 15th-century additions, now used as government offices; St. Aegidius Cathedral (1438–64), with Baroque decorations and fine stained-glass windows; and the adjacent mausoleum (1614–1714) of Ferdinand II, a native of Graz and Holy Roman emperor (1619–37). Educational institutions include Graz University (Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz; 1585), with a botanical garden; Graz Technical University (1811); and the University of Music and Dramatic Arts, founded in the city in 1963. Graz is home to numerous museums, including the Joanneum Provincial Museum (Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum), founded in 1811 by the archduke Johann and containing historical and art collections; Kunsthaus (“Art Gallery”) Graz (opened 2003), which features contemporary art; one devoted to bodybuilder, actor, and politician Arnold Schwarzenegger (Schwarzenegger, Arnold) (a native of Graz); and a children's museum. Other museums focus on locks and keys, toys, railways, tramways, aviation, and criminology. Each autumn Graz hosts a contemporary arts festival. The city was designated the European cultural capital for 2003.

      A rail and industrial centre, Graz has ironworks and steelworks, breweries, and railway workshops. Manufactures include precision and optical instruments, machinery, paper, textiles, and chemicals. Graz also is a major automobile development and production centre. Telecommunications and medical technology contribute to the local economy as well. There is an active trade in cereal grains, fruit, and wine from the nearby hills, and tourism is also important. Pop. (2006) 244,537.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Graz — Graz …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Graz — Escudo …   Wikipedia Español

  • Graz — Blason de Graz …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Graz — Graz: Landeshauptstadt der Steiermark. * * * Graz,   Hauptstadt des österreichischen Bundeslandes Steiermark, erstreckt sich über 12 km beiderseits der Mur nach ihrem Austritt aus den Alpen (Grazer Bergland) ins Grazer Becken, 353 m über dem… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • GRAZ — GRAZ, capital of styria , considered one of the oldest Jewish settlements in Austria. Although a gravestone, excavated in 1577 and erroneously dated to 70 B.C.E., long led to the belief that the community was much older, adjacent Judendorf was… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Graz — (hierzu der Stadtplan, mit Registerblatt), Hauptstadt von Steiermark, liegt malerisch in der von Bergen umkränzten Ebene des Grazer Feldes, 352 m ü. M., zu beiden Seiten der Mur, an der Linie Wien Triest der Südbahn, G. Fehring der Staatsbahnen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • GRAZ — Capitale du Land de Styrie et deuxième ville autrichienne, Graz bénéficie d’une situation très favorable, au croisement de la vallée alpine de la Mur et de la route de rocade qui longe le pied oriental de la chaîne. Elle est établie dans le… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • graz — graz·er; graz; graz·able; graz·ing·ly; …   English syllables

  • Graz — Graz, ciudad de Austria, capital del estado de Estiria (en alemán, Steiermark). Cuenta con 300.000 habitantes, lo que la convierte en la segunda aglomeración del país. Actualmente el alcalde de la ciudad es del Partido Popular (ÖVP), después de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Gräz — Gräz, Stadt in Posen, s. Grätz …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Graz — (Gratz), Hauptstadt von Steiermark [Karte: Österreich Ungarische Monarchie I, 7], an der Mur, Sitz des Fürstbischofs von Seckau, (1900) 138.080 E., kaiserl. Burg, Dom, Karl Franzens Universität (1585), Technische Hochschule, Johanneum mit… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.