glycoside


glycoside
glycosidic /gluy'keuh sid"ik/, adj.
/gluy"keuh suyd'/, n. Biochem.
any of the class of compounds that yield a sugar and an aglycon upon hydrolysis.
[1925-30; GLYCOSE + -IDE]

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Any of a wide variety of naturally occurring organic compounds in which a carbohydrate portion consisting of one or more sugars or sugar derivatives is combined with a hydroxy compound (a compound containing an ―OH group).

Since sugars themselves are hydroxy compounds, polysaccharides are glycosides by definition. Other glycosides include various flower and fruit pigments, several antibiotics (e.g., streptomycin), and the cardiac glycosides (see digitalis).

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      any of a wide variety of naturally occurring substances in which a carbohydrate portion, consisting of one or more sugars or a uronic acid (i.e., a sugar acid), is combined with a hydroxy compound. The hydroxy compound, usually a non-sugar entity (aglycon), such as a derivative of phenol or an alcohol, may also be another carbohydrate, as in cellulose, glycogen, or starch, which consist of many glucose units.

      Many glycosides occur in plants, often as flower and fruit pigments; for example, anthocyanins.

      Various medicines, condiments, and dyes from plants occur as glycosides; of great value are the heart-stimulating glycosides of digitalis and Strophanthus, members of a group known as cardiac glycosides. Several antibiotics are glycosides (e.g., streptomycin). Saponins (saponin), widely distributed in plants, are glycosides that lower the surface tension of water; saponin solutions have been used as cleansing agents.

      Glycosides derived from glucuronic acid (the uronic acid of glucose) and steroids are constituents of normal animal urine. Compounds (nucleosides) derived from the partial breakdown of nucleic acids are also glycosides.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • glycoside — glycoside. См. гликозид. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • glycoside — [glī′kə sīd΄] n. [Fr < glycose (altered after Gr glykys), for glucose, GLUCOSE + ide, IDE] any of a group of sugar derivatives, widely distributed in plants, which on hydrolysis yield a sugar and one or more other substances glycosidic [glī… …   English World dictionary

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  • glycoside — noun Etymology: alteration of glucoside Date: 1855 any of numerous sugar derivatives that contain a nonsugar group bonded to an oxygen or nitrogen atom and that on hydrolysis yield a sugar (as glucose) • glycosidic adjective • glycosidically… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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  • glycoside — noun A molecule in which a sugar group is bound to a non sugar group (the corresponding glycone) by a nitrogen or oxygen atom. Glycosides yield a sugar after undergoing hydrolysis. See Also: glycosidase, glycosidation, glucoside, glycosidic …   Wiktionary

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