gauge


gauge
gaugeable, adj.gaugeably, adv.
/gayj/, v., gauged, gauging, n.
v.t.
1. to determine the exact dimensions, capacity, quantity, or force of; measure.
2. to appraise, estimate, or judge.
3. to make conformable to a standard.
4. to mark or measure off; delineate.
5. to prepare or mix (plaster) with a definite proportion of plaster of Paris and mortar.
6. to chip or rub (bricks or stones) to a uniform size or shape.
n.
7. a standard of measure or measurement.
8. a standard dimension, size, or quantity.
9. any device or instrument for measuring, registering measurements, or testing something, esp. for measuring a dimension, quantity, or mechanical accuracy: pressure gauge; marking gauge.
10. a means of estimating or judging; criterion; test.
11. extent; scope; capacity: trying to determine the gauge of his own strength.
12. Ordn. a unit of measure of the internal diameter of a shotgun barrel, determined by the number of spherical lead bullets of a diameter equal to that of the bore that are required to make one pound: a twelve-gauge shotgun.
13. Railroads. the distance between the inner edges of the heads of the rails in a track, usually 4 ft. 8.5 in. (1.4 m) (standard gauge), but sometimes more (broad gauge) and sometimes less (narrow gauge).
14. the distance between a pair of wheels on an axle.
15. the thickness or diameter of various, usually thin, objects, as the thickness of sheet metal or the diameter of a wire or screw.
16. the fineness of a knitted fabric as expressed in loops per every 1.5 in. (3.8 cm): 15 denier, 60 gauge stockings.
17. Naut. the position of one vessel as being to the windward (weather gauge) or to the leeward (lee gauge) of another vessel on an approximately parallel course.
18. Building Trades. the portion of the length of a slate, tile, etc., left exposed when laid in place.
19. the amount of plaster of Paris mixed with mortar or common plaster to hasten the set.
Also, esp. in technical use, gage.
[1375-1425; late ME < ONF (F jauge) < Gmc]
Syn. 2. evaluate, assess, value, calculate.

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I
In manufacturing and engineering, a device used to determine whether a dimension is larger or smaller than a reference standard.

A snap gauge, for example, is formed like the letter C, with outer "go" and inner "not go" jaws, and is used to check diameters, lengths, and thicknesses. Screw-thread pitch gauges have triangular serrations spaced to correspond with various pitches, or numbers of threads per inch or per centimeter. Deviation-type or dial gauges indicate the amount by which an object deviates from the standard.
II
(as used in expressions)

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      a measure of the bore of a shotgun. See bore.

also spelled  Gage,  

      in manufacturing and engineering, a device used to determine, either directly or indirectly, whether a dimension is larger or smaller than another dimension that is used as a reference standard. Some devices termed gauges may actually measure the size of the object to be gauged, but most gauges merely indicate whether the dimensions of the test object are sufficiently close to those of the standard; i.e., whether they are in the range between set limits, known as the tolerance, for a particular object. Gauges may operate mechanically or electrically.

      Gauges are usually regarded as either fixed-type or deviation-type instruments. Fixed-type gauges are used to indicate whether a given dimension is larger or smaller than the standard. They may be of hard steel, soft steel, or glass. Sometimes chrome plating or tungsten-carbide coatings are used to prevent wear.

      Plug, ring, snap, and limit gauges are fixed gauges usually made to satisfy special requirements. To check the accuracy of a hole, a cylindrical bar (plug gauge) with highly finished ends of different diameters is used. If the hole size is correct within tolerable limits, the small end (marked “go”) will enter the hole, while the large end (“not go”) will not. Ring gauges for checking the dimensions of cylindrical parts also utilize the tolerance principle, with “go” and “not go” sections. A snap gauge is formed like the letter C, with outer “go” and inner “not go” jaws, and is used to check diameters, lengths, and thicknesses.

      Flush-pin gauges have one moving part and are used to gauge the depth of shoulders or holes. Form gauges are used to check the profile of objects; two of the most common types are radius gauges, which are packs of blades with both concave and convex circular profiles that are used to check the radii of grooves and corners, and screw-thread pitch gauges, which are blades with triangular serrations spaced to correspond with various pitches, or numbers of threads per inch or per centimetre.

      Gauge blocks, also known as Johannsson blocks, after their inventor, came into significant industrial use during World War I. They are small steel blocks, usually rectangular, with two exceptionally flat surfaces parallel to each other and a specified distance apart. They are sold as sets of blocks that can be wrung together in increments of ten-thousandths of an inch to gauge almost any linear dimension. Angle-gauge blocks can be put together to measure angles.

      Deviation-type gauges indicate the amount by which the object being gauged deviates from the standard. This deviation is usually shown in units of measurement, but some gauges show only whether the deviation is within a certain range. They include dial indicators, in which movement of a gauging spindle deflects a pointer on a graduated dial; wiggler indicators, which are used by machinists to centre or align work in machine tools; comparators, or visual gauges; and air gauges, which are used to gauge holes of various types. Very precise measurements may also be obtained by the use of light-wave interference, but the instruments that do so are referred to as interferometers.

▪ railroad track
also called  Railway Gauge,  

      in railroad transportation, the width between the inside faces of running rails. Because the cost of construction and operation of a rail line is greater or less depending on the gauge, much controversy has surrounded decisions in respect to it, and a proliferation of gauges has developed throughout the world. A narrow gauge has, in addition to cost advantages, a capability for sharper curvature; among its disadvantages are reduced lateral stability and consequent loss of operating speed.

      About three-fifths of the rail trackage in the world is the so-called standard gauge of 4 feet 8.5 inches (1.4 m), which originated with George Stephenson's pioneer Liverpool & Manchester line in 1829. It was exported from Britain to Europe and the United States with the export of British locomotives built to it. Among notable deviations are Russia's 5-foot (1.5-metre) gauge, Spain's 5-foot 6-inch (1.7-metre) gauge, and Japan's 3-foot 6-inch (1.1-metre) gauge. Several countries operate railroads on two different gauges; Pakistan operates on three; and Australia and India use four.

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Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Gauge — Gauge, n. [Written also gage.] 1. A measure; a standard of measure; an instrument to determine dimensions, distance, or capacity; a standard. [1913 Webster] This plate must be a gauge to file your worm and groove to equal breadth by. Moxon. [1913 …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Gauge — may refer to:In measurements:* American wire gauge, a measurement of diameter of a wire * Gauge (bore diameter), the diameter of a shotgun barrel * Stubs Iron Wire Gauge, which corresponds to the diameter of a hypodermic needle **See also * Sheet …   Wikipedia

  • gauge — [gāj] n. [ME < NormFr: see the GAUGE vt.] 1. a standard measure or scale of measurement 2. dimensions, capacity, thickness, etc. 3. any device for measuring something, as the thickness of wire, the dimensions of a machined part, the amount of… …   English World dictionary

  • Gauge — (g[=a]j), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Gauged}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Gauging}] [OF. gaugier, F. jauger, cf. OF. gauge gauge, measuring rod, F. jauge; of uncertain origin; perh. fr. an assumed L. qualificare to determine the qualities of a thing (see… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Gauge — (ingl.) En lenguaje técnico, medida de la *distancia o el *hueco de ciertas cosas; por ejemplo, el tamaño del punto en los tejidos de punto, o la distancia entre los rieles de una *vía. * * * En física, las teorías extensamente aceptadas del… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Gauge — bezeichnet: Gauge (Technik), Maße für Größenangaben, speziell Eichmaße und Endmaße, sowie Messgeräte, speziell Messuhren, Messlehren oder Schieblehren Gauge (Fluss), Fluss in Nordwest England Gauge (Pornodarstellerin) (* 1980), amerikanische… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • gauge — (v.) ascertain by exact measurements, mid 15c., from Anglo Fr. gauge (mid 14c.), from O.N.Fr. gauger (O.Fr. jauger), from gauge gauging rod, perhaps from Frankish *galgo rod, pole for measuring (Cf. O.N. gelgja pole, perch, O.H.G. galgo; see… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Gauge — [geidʒ] das; <aus engl. gauge »Normalmaß« zu altfr. gauger »messen«, weitere Herkunft unsicher> in der Strumpffabrikation Maß zur Angabe der Maschenzahl u. damit zur Feinheit des Erzeugnisses; Abk.: gg …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • gauge — [n] measure, standard barometer, basis, benchmark, bore, capacity, check, criterion, degree, depth, example, exemplar, extent, guide, guideline, height, indicator, magnitude, mark, meter, model, norm, pattern, rule, sample, scale, scope, size,… …   New thesaurus

  • gauge — sb. (fk.), gauge (mål for masketæthed i strik) …   Dansk ordbog

  • gauge — (chiefly US also gage) ► NOUN 1) an instrument that measures and gives a visual display of the amount, level, or contents of something. 2) the thickness, size, or capacity of a wire, sheet, tube, bullet, etc., especially as a standard measure. 3) …   English terms dictionary


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