gastrectomy


gastrectomy
/ga strek"teuh mee/, n., pl. gastrectomies.
partial or total excision of the stomach.
[1885-90; GASTR- + -ECTOMY]

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Surgical removal of all or part of the stomach to treat peptic ulcers.

It eliminates the cells that secrete acid and halts the production of gastrin, the hormone that stimulates them. Once a common operation, it is now a last resort. The usual procedure, antrectomy, removes the lower half of the stomach (antrum), the chief site of gastrin secretion. The remaining stomach is joined to the duodenum. Subtotal gastrectomy removes up to three-quarters of the stomach. The greatest drawback is malnutrition caused by decreased appetite and inability to digest food.

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▪ surgical procedure
      surgical removal of all or part of the stomach. This procedure is used to remove both benign and malignant neoplasms (tumours (tumour)) of the stomach, including adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the stomach. A variety of less-common benign tumours of the stomach or stomach wall can also be successfully treated with partial gastrectomy. In addition, the operation is sometimes used to treat peptic ulcers (peptic ulcer) because it eliminates the gastric-acid-secreting parietal cells in the stomach lining and halts the production of the acid-stimulating hormone gastrin, thus removing the underlying cellular substances that give rise to an ulcer. Once a common method of treatment for patients with painful ulcers, gastrectomy is now used only as a last resort if the appropriate drugs have failed or if an ulcer is perforated or hemorrhaging.

      The most common procedure is antrectomy, which removes the lower half of the stomach (antrum), the chief site of gastrin secretion. The remaining stomach is then reconnected to the first section of the small intestine (duodenum). In a more extensive procedure, subtotal gastrectomy, as much as three-quarters of the stomach is removed, including all of the antrum. The remaining stomach may then be reattached directly to the duodenum or to the jejunum, a more distal part of the intestine beyond the usual site of ulceration.

      The long-term survival rates of patients with stomach cancer who undergo gastrectomy vary widely; for example, patients with early stage cancer have high five-year survival rates, typically around 90 percent, whereas patients with late-stage cancers have low five-year survival rates, generally less than 10 percent. Gastrectomy is often accompanied by gastric lymphadenectomy (removal of lymph nodes associated with the stomach), which can improve survival rate in some stomach cancer patients. The incidence of ulcer recurrence after gastrectomy is very low (about 2 percent) when the antrum is completely removed. The most significant drawback to gastrectomy is general malnutrition, caused by decreased appetite and by the stomach's decreased ability to digest food.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • gastrectomy — 1886, from GASTRO (Cf. gastro ) + ECTOMY (Cf. ectomy) …   Etymology dictionary

  • gastrectomy — [gas trek′tə mē] n. pl. gastrectomies [ GASTR(O) + ECTOMY: see GASTRO ] the surgical removal of all, or esp. part, of the stomach …   English World dictionary

  • gastrectomy — Excision of a part or all of the stomach. [gastr + G. ektome, excision] Hofmeister g. hofmeister operation in which a portion of the stomach is removed and a retrocolic gastrojejunostomy is constructed in an end to side fash …   Medical dictionary

  • gastrectomy — n. a surgical operation in which the whole or a part of the stomach is removed. Total gastrectomy, in which the oesophagus is joined to the duodenum, is usually performed for stomach cancer but occasionally for the Zollinger Ellison syndrome. In… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Gastrectomy — A gastrectomy is a partial or full surgical removal of the stomach. IndicationsGastrectomies are performed to treat cancer and perforations of the stomach wall. In severe duodenal ulcers it may be necessary to remove the lower portion of the… …   Wikipedia

  • gastrectomy — noun (plural mies) Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: 1886 surgical removal of all or part of the stomach …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • gastrectomy — noun Removal of the stomach …   Wiktionary

  • gastrectomy — n. surgical removal of part or all of the stomach …   English contemporary dictionary

  • gastrectomy — [ga strɛktəmi] noun (plural gastrectomies) surgical removal of a part or the whole of the stomach …   English new terms dictionary

  • gastrectomy — gas·trec·to·my …   English syllables