Fraunhofer lines


Fraunhofer lines
the dark lines of the solar spectrum.
[1830-40; named after J. von FRAUNHOFER]

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In astronomical spectroscopy, dark lines in a star's spectrum caused by selective absorption of its radiation at specific wavelengths by the various chemical elements in its atmosphere.

First observed in 1802, they are named for the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787–1826), who from с 1814 plotted over 500 of them and designated the brightest with the first few letters of the alphabet. About 25,000 Fraunhofer lines are known to exist in the Sun's spectrum, between the wavelengths of 2,950 and 10,000 angstroms.

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      in astronomical spectroscopy, any of the dark (absorption) lines in the spectrum of the Sun or other star, caused by selective absorption of the Sun's or star's radiation at specific wavelengths by the various elements existing as gases in its atmosphere. The lines were first observed in 1802 by the English physicist William Hyde Wollaston but are named for the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer, who from about 1814 plotted more than 500 of them and designated the brightest by the letters A through G, a system of identification still in use. About 25,000 Fraunhofer lines are now known to exist in the solar spectrum, between the wavelengths of 2,950 and 10,000 angstroms. (One angstrom equals 10-8 cm.)

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Fraunhofer lines — Fraun ho*fer lines prop. n. pl.. (Physics.) The lines of the spectrum; especially and properly, the dark lines of the solar spectrum, so called because first accurately observed and interpreted by Fraunhofer, a German physicist. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Fraunhofer lines — [froun′hō΄fər] n. [after Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787 1826), Bavarian optician, who first mapped them accurately] the dark lines visible in the spectrum of the sun or a star …   English World dictionary

  • Fraunhofer lines — In physics and optics, the Fraunhofer lines are a set of spectral lines named for the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787–1826). The lines were originally observed as dark features (absorption lines) in the optical spectrum of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Fraunhofer lines — Fraun·ho·fer lines frau̇n .hōf ər n pl the dark lines in the spectrum of sunlight Fraunhofer Joseph von (1787 1826) German optician and physicist. Fraunhofer was a master theoretical optician as well as an expert maker of glass lenses and… …   Medical dictionary

  • fraunhofer lines — n.pl. the dark lines visible in solar and stellar spectra. Etymology: J. von Fraunhofer, Bavarian physicist d. 1826 * * * ˈfrau̇nˌhōfə(r) noun Usage: usually capitalized F Etymology: after Joseph von Fraunhofer died 1826 Bavarian optician and… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Fraunhofer lines — /ˈfraʊnhoʊfə laɪnz/ (say frownhohfuh luynz) plural noun the dark lines of the solar spectrum. {See Fraunhofer diffraction} …   Australian English dictionary

  • Fraunhofer, Joseph von — • Optician (1787 1826) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Fraunhofer, Joseph von     Joseph von Fraunhofer …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Fraunhofer , Josef von — (1787–1826) German physicist and optician Fraunhofer, whose family was in the optical trade, was born in Straubing (now in Germany); he was apprenticed to an optician in Munich after his parents died. He subsequently moved to the Utzschneider… …   Scientists

  • Fraunhofer, Joseph von — ▪ German physicist born March 6, 1787, Straubing, Bavaria [Germany] died June 7, 1826, Munich  German physicist who first studied the dark lines of the Sun s spectrum, now known as Fraunhofer lines. He also was the first to use extensively the… …   Universalium

  • Fraunhofer'sche Linien — Die Fraunhoferlinien sind dunkle Linien im Spektrum der Sonne. Solche Linien entstehen dadurch, dass Gase in der Photosphäre der sichtbaren Sonnenoberfläche einen Teil des Sonnenlichts absorbieren. Es handelt sich also um Absorptionslinien. Die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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