Fox


Fox
/foks/, n.
1. Charles James, 1749-1806, British orator and statesman.
2. George, 1624-91, English religious leader and writer: founder of the Society of Friends.
3. John. See Foxe, John.
4. John William, Jr., 1863-1919, U.S. novelist.
5. Margaret, 1833-93, and her sister Katherine ("Kate"), 1839-92, U.S. spiritualist mediums, born in Canada.
6. Sir William, 1812-93, New Zealand statesman, born in England: prime minister 1856, 1861-62, 1869-72, 1873.

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North American Indian people living mainly in Oklahoma but also in Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, U.S. They are distinct from but united with the Sauk (Sac) as the Sac and Fox Nation.

Their name for themselves is Mesquakie (or Meshkwahkihaki, meaning "People of the Red Earth"), and their language is of the Algonquian family. They are believed to have originated from the Great Lakes region. Both the Sauk and the Fox were living in Wisconsin at the time of first European contact. Their permanent villages
near fields in which women cultivated corn, beans, and squash
were occupied in summer; in winter they hunted bison on the prairies. A chief and council administered tribal affairs. Families were grouped into clans. Religious life centred on the Grand Medicine Society, whose members enlisted supernatural aid to heal the sick and ensure success in warfare. In the 18th century the Fox joined with the Sauk to war against the French and English. Though unconquered, they retreated south to Illinois and later west to Iowa. In 1832 Black Hawk led a group of Fox and Sauk in an unsuccessful attempt to return to their Illinois lands. In the 2000 U.S. census some 4,200 people claimed Sac and Fox descent.

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people
also called  Meskwaki  or  Mesquakie 
 an Algonquian (Algonquian languages)-speaking tribe of North American Indians who called themselves Meshkwakihug, the “Red-Earth People.” When they first met French traders in 1667, the tribe lived in the forest zone of what is now northeastern Wisconsin. Tribes to their east referred to them as “foxes,” a custom the colonial French and British continued.

      Traditionally, the Fox moved with the seasons. Their permanent villages—located near fields in which women cultivated corn (maize), beans, and squash—were occupied during the planting, growing, and harvest seasons. Most people left the villages after the harvest to participate in communal winter bison hunts on the prairies. Fox social and political organization was centred upon a peace chief and council of elders who administered tribal affairs; important issues were discussed by the entire tribe until consensus was reached. War parties rallied about men whose skill and reputation made them leaders. Families were grouped into clans that were mainly ceremonial organizations; members traced their descent from a mythical founder through the male line. A major religious organization was the Midewiwin, or medicine society, a group whose members were devoted to healing the sick and enlisting supernatural aid to ensure tribal welfare. Many Midewiwin ceremonies involved the use of medicine bundles, which were collections of sacred objects.

      In the 18th century the Fox joined with the Sauk (Sac) in resisting colonization by the French and later by the English. The two tribes eventually retreated from the colonial front by moving from what is now Wisconsin to Illinois and then Iowa. They moved to Kansas in 1842, and in 1857 some returned to Iowa.

      Early 21st-century population estimates indicated more than 6,500 Fox descendants, most living in Iowa, Kansas, and Oklahoma.

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Universalium. 2010.

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