fine structure

fine structure
/fuyn/, Physics.
a group of lines that are observed in the spectra of certain elements, as hydrogen, and that are caused by various couplings of the azimuthal quantum number and the angular momentum quantum number. Cf. hyperfine structure.
[1915-20]

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      in spectroscopy, the splitting of the main spectral lines of an atom into two or more components, each representing a slightly different wavelength. Fine structure is produced when an atom emits light in making the transition from one energy state to another. The split lines, which are called the fine structure of the main lines, arise from the interaction of the orbital motion of an electron with the quantum mechanical “spin” of that electron. An electron can be thought of as an electrically charged spinning top, and hence it behaves as a tiny bar magnet. The spinning electron interacts with the magnetic field produced by the electron's rotation about the atomic nucleus to generate the fine structure.

      The amount of splitting is characterized by a dimensionless constant called the fine-structure constant. This constant is given by the equation α = ke2/hc, where k is Coulomb's constant, e is the charge of the electron, h is Planck's constant, and c is the speed of light. The value of the constant α is 7.29735308 × 10−3, which is nearly equal to 1/137.

      In the atoms of alkali metals (alkali metal) such as sodium and potassium, there are two components of fine structure (called doublets), while in atoms of alkaline earths there are three components (triplets). This arises because the atoms of alkali metals have only one electron outside a closed core, or shell, of electrons, while the atoms of alkaline earths have two such electrons. Doublet separation for corresponding lines increases with atomic number; thus, with lithium (atomic number 3), a doublet may not be resolved by an ordinary spectroscope, whereas with rubidium (atomic number 37), a doublet may be widely separated.

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

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  • fine structure — noun the presence of groups of closely spaced spectrum lines observed in the atomic spectrum of certain elements the fine structure results from slightly different energy levels • Hypernyms: ↑spectrum line • Part Holonyms: ↑atomic spectrum …   Useful english dictionary

  • fine structure — fine′ struc′ture [[t]faɪn[/t]] n. 1) phs a group of lines that are observed in the spectra of certain elements, as hydrogen 2) cbl the aggregate of components of the cytoskeleton • Etymology: 1915–20 …   From formal English to slang

  • fine structure — noun Date: 1935 microscopic structure of a biological entity or one of its parts especially as studied in preparations for the electron microscope • fine structural adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • fine structure — Смотри тонкая структура …   Энциклопедический словарь по металлургии

  • fine structure genetic mapping — fine structure genetic mapping. См. тонкое генетическое картирование. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.


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