Faroe Islands


Faroe Islands
/fair"oh/.
Also, Faroes.

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Faroe Islands

Introduction Faroe Islands
Background: The population of the Faroe Islands is largely descended from Viking settlers who arrived in the 9th century. The islands have been connected politically to Denmark since the 14th century. A high degree of self-government was attained in 1948. Geography Faroe Islands -
Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to Norway
Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 7 00 W
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 1,399 sq km water: 0 sq km (some lakes and streams) land: 1,399 sq km
Area - comparative: eight times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 1,117 km
Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line territorial sea: 3 NM
Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy
Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m
Natural resources: fish, whales, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 2.14% permanent crops: 0% other: 97.86% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: NA Environment - current issues: NA
Geography - note: archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands People Faroe Islands
Population: 46,011 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.3% (male 5,149; female 5,110) 15-64 years: 64% (male 15,650; female 13,801) 65 years and over: 13.7% (male 2,818; female 3,483) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.74% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 13.74 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 8.69 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/ female total population: 1.06 male(s)/ female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 6.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.74 years female: 82.21 years (2002 est.) male: 75.28 years
Total fertility rate: 2.27 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA% HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Faroese (singular and plural) adjective: Faroese
Ethnic groups: Scandinavian
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran
Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish
Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA% note: similar to Denmark proper Government Faroe Islands
Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Faroe Islands local short form: Foroyar local long form: none
Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1948
Government type: NA
Capital: Torshavn Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 49 municipalities
Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
National holiday: Olaifest, 29 July
Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Legal system: Danish
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Birgit KLEIS, chief administrative officer (since 1 November 2001) election results: Anfinn KALLSBERG elected prime minister; percent of parliamentary vote - 52.8% note: coalition of People's Party, Republican Party, and Home Rule Party elections: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually elected prime minister by the Faroese Parliament; election last held 30 April 1998 (next to be held no later than April 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Anfinn KALLSBERG (since 15 May 1998) cabinet: Landsstyri appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: unicameral Faroese Parliament or Logting (32 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis from the seven constituencies to serve four-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Union Party 8, Republican Party 8, Social Democrats 7, People's Party 7, Independence Party 1, Center Party 1 note: election of 2 seats to the Danish Parliament was last held on 20 November 2001 (next to be held no later than November 2005); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 1, Union Party 1 elections: last held 30 April 2002 (next to be held no later than April 2006)
Judicial branch: none Political parties and leaders: Center Party [Tordur NICALSEN]; Home Rule Party [Helena Dam a NEYSTABO]; Independence Party [leader NA]; People's Party [Oli BRECKMANN]; Republican Party [Finnabogi ISAKSON]; Social Democratic Party [Joannes EIDESGAARD]; Union Party [Edmund JOENSEN] Political pressure groups and NA
leaders: International organization NC, NIB
participation: Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark) Diplomatic representation from the none (self-governing overseas
US: administrative division of Denmark)
Flag description: white with a red cross outlined in blue extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted toward the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) Economy Faroe Islands -
Economy - overview: The Faroese economy has had a strong performance since 1994, mostly as a result of increasing fish landings and high and stable export prices. Unemployment is falling and there are signs of labor shortages in several sectors. The positive economic development has helped the Faroese Home Rule Government produce increasing budget surpluses which in turn help to reduce the large public debt, most of it owed to Denmark. However, the total dependence on fishing makes the Faroese economy extremely vulnerable, and the present fishing efforts appear in excess of what is a sustainable level of fishing in the long term. Oil finds close to the Faroese area give hope for deposits in the immediate Faroese area, which may eventually lay the basis for a more diversified economy and thus lessen dependence on Denmark and Danish economic assistance. Aided by a substantial annual subsidy (15% of GDP) from Denmark, the Faroese have a standard of living not far below the Danes and other Scandinavians.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $910 million (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,000 (2000 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 27% industry: 11% services: 62% (1999) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.1% (1999)
Labor force: 24,250 (October 2000) Labor force - by occupation: fishing, fish processing, and manufacturing 33%, construction and private services 33%, public services 34%
Unemployment rate: 1% (October 2000)
Budget: revenues: $488 million expenditures: $484 million, including capital expenditures of $21 million (1999)
Industries: fishing, fish processing, shipbuilding, construction, handicrafts Industrial production growth rate: 8% (1999 est.) Electricity - production: 165 million kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 60.61% hydro: 39.39% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 153.45 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: milk, potatoes, vegetables; sheep; salmon, other fish
Exports: $471 million (f.o.b., 1999)
Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 94%, stamps, ships (1999)
Exports - partners: Denmark 32%, UK 21%, France 9%, Germany 7%, Iceland 5%, US 5% (1996)
Imports: $469 million (c.i.f., 1999)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 29%, consumer goods 36%, raw materials and semi-manufactures 32%, fuels, fish and salt (1999)
Imports - partners: Denmark 28%, Norway 26%, Germany 7%, UK 6% Sweden 5%, Iceland 4%, US (1999)
Debt - external: $64 million (1999) Economic aid - recipient: $135 million (annual subsidy from Denmark) (1999)
Currency: Danish krone (DKK)
Currency code: DKK
Exchange rates: Danish kroner per US dollar - 8.418 (January 2002), 8.323 (2001), 8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997)
Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Faroe Islands Telephones - main lines in use: 24,851 (1999) Telephones - mobile cellular: 10,761 (1999)
Telephone system: general assessment: good international communications; good domestic facilities domestic: digitalization was completed in 1998; both NMT (analog) and GSM (digital) mobile telephone systems are installed international: satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic submarine cable to the Shetland Islands, linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland; fiber- optic submarine cable connection to Canada-Europe cable Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 26,000 (1997) Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus 43 low-power repeaters) (September 1995)
Televisions: 15,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .fo Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: 3,000 (2000) Transportation Faroe Islands
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total: 463 km paved: 454 km unpaved: 9 km (1999)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Torshavn, Klaksvik, Tvoroyri, Runavik, Fuglafjordhur
Merchant marine: total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 100,951 GRT/139,396 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 3, Norway 1, United Kingdom 1 (2002 est.) ships by type: cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1
Airports: 1 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001) Military Faroe Islands
Military branches: no regular indigenous military forces; small Police Force and Coast Guard are maintained Military expenditures - dollar $NA
figure: Military expenditures - percent of NA%
GDP:
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark Transnational Issues Faroe Islands Disputes - international: Faroese are considering proposals for full independence; Denmark dispute with Iceland over the Faroe Islands fisheries median line boundary of 200 NM; Denmark disputes with Iceland, the UK, and Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM

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Group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean that form a self-governing region of Denmark.

Area: 540 sq mi (1,399 sq km). Population: (2002 est.) 47,400. Lying north of the British Isles, the islands are politically situated within the kingdom of Denmark. There are 17 inhabited islands and many islets and reefs. The largest, Strømø, holds the capital of Tórshavn. The islands are high and rugged, with coasts that are deeply indented with fjords. The economy is based on fishing and sheep raising. First settled by Irish monks (с 700), the islands were colonized by the Vikings (с 800) and were ruled by Norway from the 11th century until 1380, when they passed to Denmark. They unsuccessfully sought independence in 1946 but received self-government in 1948. In the early 21st century they continued discussions with Denmark on full independence.

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▪ islands, Atlantic Ocean
Introduction
also spelled  Faeroe Islands , Faroese  Føroyar , Danish  Færøerne 

      group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean between Iceland and the Shetland Islands. They form a self-governing region within the kingdom of Denmark. There are 17 inhabited islands and many islets and reefs. The main islands are Streymoy (Streym), Eysturoy (Eystur), Vágar, Suduroy (Sudur), Sandoy (Sand), Bordoy (Bord), and Svínoy (Svín). The capital is Tórshavn (Thorshavn) on Streymoy. Area 540 square miles (1,399 square km). Pop. (2008 est.) 48,700.

Land
      Composed of volcanic rocks covered by a thin layer of moraine or peat soil, the islands are high and rugged with perpendicular cliffs—the highest at Mount Slaettara (Slaettaratindur; 2,894 feet [882 metres]) on Eystur Island—and flat summits separated by narrow ravines. The coasts are deeply indented with fjords, and the narrow passages between islands are agitated by strong tidal currents.

 The climate is oceanic and mild, with little variation in temperature and frequent fog and rain; annual precipitation totals 60 inches (1,600 mm). The warm North Atlantic Current keeps the harbours free of ice. Natural vegetation is moss, grass, and mountain bog. The islands are naturally treeless because of the cool summers, strong westerly winds, and frequent gales, but some hardy trees have been planted in sheltered plantations. There are no toads, reptiles, or indigenous land mammals; hares, rats, and mice came on ships. Seabirds are numerous and were in earlier times economically important—the puffin as food and the eider for feathers.

People
      The Faroese are of Scandinavian origin; many are descendants of Norwegian Vikings who colonized the islands about AD 800. About a fourth of the population lives in Tórshavn, the remainder live in small settlements, almost all of which are on the coasts. The official languages are Faroese (Faroese language)—most closely related to Icelandic—and Danish. Most islanders are Lutherans belonging to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark. The population tripled between 1801 and 1901 and has more than doubled since then.

Economy
      Since 1900 the economy of the islands has changed from agricultural (primarily sheep raising) to one based on fishing and related industries, especially the export of frozen and dried cod. Supplements to fishing include fowling and sheep raising—wool is still used in a small, home-based spinning and knitting industry. Little of the land is cultivated; the main crop is grass for sheep. Fuels, basic manufactures, and transport equipment are the major imports. The main harbour is at Tórshavn, and there is an airport on Vágar. There are regular shipping services with Denmark, Iceland, and, in summer, the Shetland Islands. In the middle of the 1990s the islands suffered a severe economic crisis, which generated a substantial emigration to Denmark. After a recovery in 1997–98, many returned.

Government and society
      The islands are a self-governing region within the Danish state and send two representatives (elected every four years) to the Folketing, the Danish legislature. The Faroe Islands Parliament (Lagting) has 32 elected members, who in turn elect an executive body (Landsstyre) headed by a chairman. Foreign policy, defense, and the monetary and judicial systems are overseen by the Folketing. A commissioner represents Denmark in the islands. Education is based on the Danish system. The islands have good medical services. For a long time a substantial minority has sought full independence from Denmark, and in 1999 the Landsstyre entered negotiations with the Danish government about conditions for full independence. An important point in the talks was the yearly payment of one billion Danish krone from Denmark as half the export earnings.

History
      The name first appeared as Faereyiar (c. 1225), meaning “Sheep Islands,” which presumably led to the national symbol, a ram. First settled by Irish monks (c. 700), the islands were colonized by the Vikings (c. 800) and were Christianized by the king of Norway (c. 1000). The remains of a Gothic cathedral, begun in the 13th century but never completed, are at Kirkjubøur (Kirkebø). The Faroes became a Norwegian province in 1035 and passed to Denmark with the rest of Norway in 1380. Separated from Norway administratively in 1709, they were attached to the diocese of Zealand and became a Danish royal trade monopoly, which inhibited economic development.

      Early Faroese oral literature became the basis for modern nationalism in the 19th century and led to the creation of a written Faroese language by the folklorist Venceslaus Ulricus Hammershaimb. Nationalist agitation hastened the restoration of the old Faroese Lagting (a combined jury and parliament) in 1852 and the end of the trade monopoly in 1856. A Home Rule Party was formed in 1906. During World War II Great Britain controlled the Faroes while the Germans occupied Denmark, a situation that strengthened demands for home rule. After the Lagting elections of 1946 reversed the majority vote for independence in an earlier plebiscite, negotiations began again in Copenhagen. In 1948 the islands were granted self-government under the authority of Denmark, with their own flag and unit of currency (the krona); Faroese was given equal status with Danish. The University of the Faroe Islands in Tórshavn was founded in 1965.

      Poor fiscal discipline in the 1980s, coupled with the collapse of the Faroese fishing industry because of overfishing, resulted in an economic crash in the early 1990s that required Danish intervention. The islands rebounded, though, to face the 21st century with renewed vigour, buoyed by the economic promise of offshore oil drilling and a growing independence movement.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Faroe Islands — • A group of Danish islands rising from the sea some four hundred miles west of Norway and almost as far south of Iceland Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Faroe Islands     Faroe Islands …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Faroe Islands — Faroe Islands, the the Faroes another spelling of Faeroe Islands …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Faroe Islands — [fer′ō] alt. sp. of FAEROE ISLANDS …   English World dictionary

  • Faroe Islands — Not to be confused with Fair Isle. Coordinates: 62°00′N 06°47′W / 62°N 6.783°W / 62; 6.783 …   Wikipedia

  • Faroe Islands — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::Faroe Islands <p></p> Background: <p></p> The population of the Faroe Islands is largely descended from Viking settlers who arrived in the 9th century. The islands… …   The World Factbook

  • Faroe Islands — noun 1. a self governing colony that is a possession of Denmark in the Faroe Islands • Syn: ↑Faeroe Islands, ↑Faroes, ↑Faeroes • Instance Hypernyms: ↑possession 2. a group of 21 volcanic islands in the North Atlantic between Iceland and the… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Faroe Islands — n. Faeroe Islands, group of islands located in the northern Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain and Iceland which are a Danish territory; self governing colony possession of Denmark in the Faroe Islands …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Faroe Islands — geographical name see Faeroe Islands …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Faroe Islands — noun Group of islands in the north Atlantic Ocean between Scotland and Iceland; a self governing territory of Denmark …   Wiktionary

  • FAROE ISLANDS —    (13), a group of 22 islands of basaltic formation, about 200 m. NW. of the Shetlands; originally Norwegian, they now belong to Denmark; agriculture is limited, and fishing and sheep farming chiefly engage the natives; there is an export trade… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia


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