Essen


Essen
/es"euhn/, n.
a city in W Germany: the chief city of the Ruhr River valley. 623,000.

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City (pop., 2002 est.: city, 591,889; metro. area, 5,823,685), North Rhine–Westphalia state, western Germany.

Located on the Ruhr River, it is the site of an extensive ironworks and steelworks. It was originally the seat of a convent (founded 852), whose 15th-century cathedral still stands. Essen became a city in the 10th century and was locally sovereign until 1802, when it passed to Prussia. The development of ironworks, steelworks, and coal mines stimulated growth in the 19th century. The city was largely destroyed in World War II, when it was targeted by the Allies as a centre of the German war industry. It has since been rebuilt with large, modern buildings, including concert halls, an economic research institute, and an art institute.

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 city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. It is situated between the Rhine-Herne Canal and the Ruhr River. Essen was originally the seat of an aristocratic convent (founded 852), still represented by the cathedral (Münsterkirche; now the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop), completed in the 15th century. In the suburb of Werden the abbey church was founded in 796 as part of a monastery. The convent and the abbey exercised local sovereignty as imperial states until their dissolution in 1802, when Essen passed to Prussia.

      The development of ironworks, steelworks, and coal mines during the 19th century stimulated Essen's rapid growth from a small town (about 3,000 inhabitants in 1802) to the largest industrial city in the Ruhr coalfield. It was occupied by the French (1923–25) and suffered heavy destruction in World War II as a centre of German war industry. The city has since been rebuilt with large, modern administrative and office buildings and housing.

      Coal was once the leading industry, but all the mines have since closed; the Zollverein coal-mine complex, once the largest in the world, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2001. The industrial hub of the Ruhr, Essen is also a retail trade centre, a rail junction, and a business service centre. In the second half of the 20th century the city was converted from a preeminent manufacturing city to a modern centre of diversified economic activities, including construction, chemical and glassworks, and factories for textiles and precision instruments.

      The southern part of Essen presents a landscape of woods and parks. The city is the seat of Folkwang College of Art (founded 1927) and the University of Duisberg-Essen (founded 1972). Essen features concert halls and an economic-research institute. Museums include the Museum Folkwang, featuring 19th- and 20th-century art, and the Ruhr Museum, with natural history, art, and cultural collections. Essen boasts a critically acclaimed philharmonic orchestra. The Ruhr is dammed at Essen to form Baldeney Lake, which is near the Villa Hügel, originally the home of the Krupps (the noted German industrialists) and since 1953 used for meetings and cultural events. Pop. (2003 est.) city, 589,499; (2000 est.) urban aggl., 6,531,000.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Essen — Êssen, verb. irreg. act. Indic. Präs. ich esse, du issest, er isset, oder ißt, wir essen u.s.f. Imperf. ich āß, (mit einem gedehnten a und gelinden ß, gleichsam ahß,) du aßest, er aß, wir aßen u.s.f. Particip gegessen, Imper. íß. Conjunct. ich… …   Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart

  • Essen — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda …   Wikipedia Español

  • ESSEN — (in Jewish sources: עסא), city in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Jews are first mentioned there in the 13th century. During the black death (1349) they were expelled from the city, but subsequently allowed to return. Jews are mentioned in a… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • essen — essen: Das gemeingerm. Verb mhd. ez̧z̧en, ahd. ez̧z̧an, got. itan, engl. to eat, schwed. äta beruht mit verwandten Wörtern in anderen idg. Sprachen auf der idg. Wurzel *ed »kauen, essen«, vgl. z. B. lat. edere »essen«, griech. édmenai »essen« und …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • Essen — essen: Das gemeingerm. Verb mhd. ez̧z̧en, ahd. ez̧z̧an, got. itan, engl. to eat, schwed. äta beruht mit verwandten Wörtern in anderen idg. Sprachen auf der idg. Wurzel *ed »kauen, essen«, vgl. z. B. lat. edere »essen«, griech. édmenai »essen« und …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • essen — Vst. std. (8. Jh.), mhd. ezzen, ahd. ezzan, as. etan Stammwort. Aus g. * et a Vst. essen , auch in gt. itan, anord. eta, ae. etan, afr. īta; dieses aus ig. * ed (athematisches Verb) essen in heth. ed , ad essen, fressen , ai. átti er ißt , gr.… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Essen — [Basiswortschatz (Rating 1 1500)] Auch: • Nahrung • Lebensmittel • Mahlzeit • Abendessen • Mittagessen Bsp.: • …   Deutsch Wörterbuch

  • Essen [1] — Essen, 1) (E. an der Ruhr) Stadt (Stadtkreis, hierzu der Stadtplan mit Registerblatt) im preuß. Regbez. Düsseldorf, im Mittelpunkt des Ruhrkohlengebiets, 79 m ü. M., ist ein mächtig aufblühender Fabrikort. Wappen von Essen. Unter den… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Essen [1] — Essen, Einführen von Speisen durch den Mund; nach der Tageszeit, wo dies geschieht, Mittags od. Abend E. Wie vielmal täglich zu essen der Gesundheit am zuträglichsten sei, hängt von Lebensart, Körperconstitution, Alter u. dergl. ab. In den… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Essen [2] — Essen, 1) Kreis im preussischen Regierungsbezirk Düsseldorf, mit 4 Städten u. 50,000 Ew.; 2) Kreisstadt daselbst, von der Ruhr u. von der Köln Mindener Eisenbahn je 1/2 Stunde entfernt, hat 5 Kirchen, darunter die alte im romanischen Style… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Essen — es una ciudad de Renania del Norte Westfalia, situada en el corazón de la región industrial de la cuenca del río Ruhr. Algunas ciudades vecinas son Duisburgo, Gelsenkirchen y Bochum. El alcalde es Wolfgang Reiniger de la Unión Demócrata Cristiana …   Enciclopedia Universal


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