Erfurt


Erfurt
/erdd"foorddt/, n.
a city in and the capital of Thuringia, in central Germany. 220,016.

* * *

City (pop., 2002 est.: 200,126), central Germany.

Boniface founded a bishopric in Erfurt in AD 742, and by 805 it was an important centre on the Frankish empire's eastern border. Erfurt was granted municipal rights с 1250 and joined the Hanseatic League in the 15th century. The city passed to Prussia in 1802, forming part of Prussian Saxony until 1945. Erfurt was the site of the first meeting of the leaders of East and West Germany in 1970. It is dominated by its 12th-century cathedral; other buildings include the monastery where Martin Luther was a monk (1505–08). Erfurt is an important road and railway junction and a commercial centre.

* * *

 city, capital of Thuringia Land (state), central Germany. It is located in the Thuringian Basin, on the Gera River, 200 miles (320 km) southwest of Berlin. It was first mentioned in 724 as Erpesfurt, the site of an abbey and a royal residence at a ford (Furt) on the Gera (originally named Erpf) River. Boniface (Boniface, Saint) founded a bishopric there in 742. By 805 it was a military strong point and an administrative and commercial centre on the eastern border of the Frankish empire. It was granted municipal rights about 1250 by the archbishop of Mainz and controlled extensive territories in the Middle Ages. Joining the Hanseatic League in the 15th century, it was until about 1600 a great commercial centre for woad, a plant then used for its blue dye extract. The University of Erfurt, established in 1392 as Germany's third university, was one of the preeminent centres of learning in the German-speaking world; it was closed in 1816 and reopened in 1994. Occupied by a Swedish garrison during the Thirty Years' War (1618–48), the city became part of the electorate of Mainz in 1664. It passed to Prussia in 1802, forming part of Prussian Saxony until 1945, except for a period of French domination (1806–13). In 1808 the Congress of Erfurt was attended by Napoleon (Napoleon I), Tsar Alexander I of Russia, and the kings of Bavaria, Saxony, Westphalia, and Württemberg. In 1850 a conference of the short-lived Prussian Union was held in Erfurt.

 Erfurt is an important road and railway junction and a commercial centre, with an airport 3 miles (5 km) northwest. Industries include metalworking and the manufacture of electrical products. Erfurt is also an important centre of high technology within eastern Germany. Known for the cultivation of a wide variety of flowers and vegetables—an industry that originated in the large gardens attached to the monasteries—it exports seeds and processed foods; the city hosts an annual garden show (first held in 1838) and features a gardening museum.

      Erfurt is dominated by the cathedral and the Church of St. Severus, which stand side-by-side atop a hill called Domberg (“Cathedral Hill”). The cathedral (1154–1476) contains 15th-century glass and numerous notable works of art. Other buildings of note in the city include the Augustinian monastery where Martin Luther (Luther, Martin) was a monk (1505–08), now an orphanage; the Krämerbrücke (“Merchant Bridge”; 1325), lined with houses and shops; the Angermuseum, located in a former custom house of the electorate of Mainz (1705–11), which features Thuringian porcelain and china and paintings by German artists; the palace of the governor of the electorate of Mainz (1711–20); the Teaching Institute (1953–59); and the Medical Academy (1954–59). There is a scientific library containing the Amplonian collection of 1400 and earlier, as well as a library of municipal archives and a natural-history museum. Erfurt also features a municipal zoo. Pop. (2003 est.) 201,645.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Erfurt — Erfurt …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Erfurt — Érfurt Escudo …   Wikipedia Español

  • ERFURT — ERFURT, city in Thuringia, Germany. Jews are first mentioned there in the 12th century. At first under the protection of the king, by the second half of the 12th century they had passed to the jurisdiction of the archbishop of Mainz, who composed …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Érfurt — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Estado: Turingia …   Wikipedia Español

  • ERFURT — ERFUR Capitale du Land de Thuringe, situé dans l’ancienne République démocratique allemande et, depuis le 3 octobre 1990, de l’Allemagne réunifiée. Les versants de la vallée de la Gera étaient peuplés dès le ERFURT IVe millénaire. La ville… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Erfurt — (hierzu der Stadtplan), Hauptstadt des gleichnamigen Regierungsbezirks, Stadt und Landkreises in der preuß. Provinz Sachsen, der Mittelpunkt und die alte Metropole Thüringens, bis 1873 Festung, 213 m ü. M., liegt an der Gera in fruchtbarer,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Érfurt — es una ciudad alemana, capital de Turingia. * * * ► C. de Alemania, en el estado de Thüringen; 220 000 h. Centro comercial, industrial y ferroviario. Importante centro de la Liga Hanseática en los ss. XIV y XV. Universidad. Catedral, iglesia de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Erfurt [1] — Erfurt, 1) Regierungsbezirk der preußischen Provinz Sachsen; gebildet aus Erfurt, Theilen des ehemaligen thüringer u. neustädter Kreises Sachsens, dem preußischen Hohenstein u. Eichsfelde, Nordhausen, Mühlhausen, Treffurt, Voigtei Dorla, 2… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Erfurt — Erfurt …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Erfurt — Erfurt, Hauptstadt des preußischen Regierungsbezirkes gleiches Namens, war schon zu Karl s des Großen Zeiten ein berühmter Handelsplatz Deutschlands, noch im Mittelalter höchst blühend, und zählte 1597 gegen 60,000 Einwohner. Durch den 30jährigen …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Erfurt [2] — Erfurt, Ludw. von, Pseudonym für Ludwig Hilsenberg …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.