epinephrine


epinephrine
/ep'euh nef"rin, -reen/, n.
1. Biochem. a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla upon stimulation by the central nervous system in response to stress, as anger or fear, and acting to increase heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and carbohydrate metabolism.
2. Pharm. a commercial form of this substance, extracted from the adrenal glands of sheep and cattle, or synthesized: used chiefly as a heart stimulant, to constrict the blood vessels, and to relax the bronchi in asthma.
Also, epinephrin. Also called adrenaline.
[1895-1900; EPI- + Gk nephr(ós) kidney + -INE2]

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One of two hormones (the other being norepinephrine) secreted by the adrenal glands, as well as at some nerve endings (see neuron), where they serve as neurotransmitters.

They are similar chemically and have similar actions on the body. They increase the rate and force of heart contractions, increasing blood output and raising blood pressure. Epinephrine also stimulates breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver, raising blood glucose levels, and both hormones increase the level of circulating free fatty acids. All these actions ready the body for action in times of stress or danger, times requiring increased alertness or exertion. Epinephrine is used in medical situations including cardiac arrest, asthma, and acute allergic reaction (see allergy). See also dopamine.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • épinéphrine — ● épinéphrine nom féminin (grec nephros, rein) Synonyme de adrénaline. ● épinéphrine (synonymes) nom féminin (grec nephros, rein) Synonymes : adrénaline …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • epinephrine — 1883, from EPI (Cf. epi ) “upon” + Gk. nephros “kidney” (see NEPHRON (Cf. nephron)) + chemical suffix INE (Cf. ine) (2). So called because the adrenal glands are on the kidneys …   Etymology dictionary

  • epinephrine — ☆ epinephrine [ep΄ə nef′rin, ep΄ə nef′rēn΄ ] n. [ EPI + NEPHR(O) + INE3] a hormone, C9H13NO3, secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland, that stimulates the heart, increases blood sugar, muscular strength, and endurance, etc.; adrenaline: it… …   English World dictionary

  • Epinephrine — Adrenaline and Adrenalin redirect here. For other uses, see Adrenaline (disambiguation). (R) (–) L Epinephrine or (R) (–) L adrenaline …   Wikipedia

  • Epinéphrine — Adrénaline Pour les articles homonymes, voir Adrénaline (homonymie). Adrénaline …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Épinéphrine — Adrénaline Pour les articles homonymes, voir Adrénaline (homonymie). Adrénaline …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Epinephrine — A substance produced by the medulla (inside) of the adrenal gland. The name epinephrine was coined in 1898 by the American pharmacologist and physiologic chemist (biochemist) John Jacob Abel who isolated it from the adrenal gland which is located …   Medical dictionary

  • epinephrine — adrenalinas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Hormonas. formulė (HO)₂C₆H₃CH(OH)CH₂NHCH₃ atitikmenys: angl. adrenalin; adrenaline; epinephrine rus. адреналин; эпинефрин ryšiai: sinonimas – epinefrinas sinonimas – 4 (1 hidroksi 2 metilaminoetil) …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • epinephrine — also epinephrin noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary epi + Greek nephros kidney more at nephritis Date: 1899 a colorless crystalline feebly basic sympathomimetic hormone C9H13NO3 that is the principal blood pressure raising hormone …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • epinephrine — Synonym for adrenaline …   Dictionary of molecular biology


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