emir


emir
/euh mear", ay mear", ay"mear/, n.
1. a chieftain, prince, commander, or head of state in some Islamic countries.
2. a title of honor of the descendants of Muhammad.
3. (cap.) the former title of the ruler of Afghanistan.
4. a title of certain Turkish officials.
Also, emeer, amir, ameer.
[1615-25; < Ar amir commander]

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In the Muslim Middle East, a military commander, governor of a province, or high military official.

The first leader to call himself emir was the second caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab. The title was used by all his successors until the abolition of the caliphate in 1924. In the 10th century the commander of the caliph's armies at Baghdad held the title. It was later adopted by the rulers of independent states in central Asia, notably Bukhara and Afghanistan. The United Arab Emirates, despite their name, are all ruled by sheikhs.

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▪ Islamic title
Arabic  Amīr 

      (“commander,” or “prince”), in the Muslim Middle East, a military commander, governor of a province, or a high military official. Under the Umayyads, the emir exercised administrative and financial powers, somewhat diminished under the ʿAbbāsids, who introduced a separate financial officer. Sometimes, as in the cases of the Aghlabids and Ṭāhirids, the emirs ruled virtually independently in their provinces with but token allegiance to the caliph. In other cases the province was first taken by force, then the emirs applied for legitimacy to the caliph.

      The title amīr al-muʾminīn, sometimes used of leaders of Muslim military campaigns, was assumed by ʿUmar, the second caliph, probably on the basis of the Qurʾānic “Obey God and obey the Apostle and those invested with command (ūlī al-amr) among you” (iv, 59); it was used by all his successors until the abolition of the caliphate in 1924.

      In the 10th century the commander of the caliph's armies at Baghdad was styled amīr al-umarāʾ (“commander in chief”). Emir could also denote office, as in amīr al-ḥājj, “leader of the pilgrimage” to Mecca, held by the caliph or his delegate, a precedent set by Abū Bakr and Muḥammad himself (630 and 631).

      The title emir was later adopted by the rulers of several independent states in central Asia, notably those of Bukhara and Afghanistan. In the modern United Arab Emirates, however, none of the rulers of the constituent states are called emirs; all are sheikhs. The word Emirates was included in the name of the federation by default, because mashyakhah (sheikhdom) was already in use for the smallest of Arab administrative units, comparable to a parish or township.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • émir — émir …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • ÉMIR — Du mot arabe am 稜r : celui qui est investi d’un commandement, commandant, chef. Le titre est porté, sous les premiers califes, par les chefs d’armée qui le gardent en devenant gouverneurs des provinces conquises. Sous les Umayyades, l’émir a dans …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Émir — est un titre de noblesse musulman. En arabe, أمير ʾamīr est celui qui donne des ordres, mot lui même dérivé du verbe أَمَرَ ʾamara (commander). Le terme amiral est dérivé du terme أمير البحر ʾamīr al baḥr (« émir/prince de la mer ») Le… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Emir — Émir Émir est un titre de noblesse musulman. En arabe, أمير amîr est celui qui donne des ordres, mot lui même dérivé du verbe أَمَرَ amara (commander). Le terme amiral est dérivé du terme أمير البحر amir al Bahr (« émir/roi de la mer ») …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Emir — (Arabic: ar. أمير; ArabDIN|ãmeer , female: أميرة; emira; ArabDIN|ameerah ), (Farsi and Urdu: امیر) commander or general , also prince ; also transliterated as amir, aamir or ameer) is a high title of nobility or office, used throughout the Arab… …   Wikipedia

  • emir — EMÍR, emiri, s.m. 1. Titlu dat descendenţilor lui Mahomed; persoană având acest titlu. 2. Titlu dat unui guvernator sau unui principe domnitor în unele ţări musulmane; persoană având acest titlu. – Din fr. émir. Trimis de claudia, 13.09.2007.… …   Dicționar Român

  • Emir — (von arabisch ‏امير‎ amīr über türk. emir) bedeutet „Befehl“, „Fürst“, „Prinz“, „Gouverneur“ oder „Befehlshaber“. In frühislamischer Zeit befehligte ein Emir eine muslimische Soldatentruppe; nach Eroberungen nahm er dann den Platz des… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Emir — 〈a. [ ′ ] m. 1〉 Titel arab. Stammeshäuptlinge u. Fürsten [<arab. emir, amir „Befehlshaber“; → Admiral] * * * Emir [auch: e mi:ɐ̯ ], der; s, e [arab. amīr, zu: amara = befehlen; vgl. ↑ Admiral]: (besonders in islamischen Ländern) Befehlshaber,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Emir — Emir, s. v. wie Befehlshaber, der Titel aller Nachkommen Muhamed s, wie auch jedes Gebieters oder Führers der einzelnen arabischen Stämme, gleichbedeutend mit Fürst. Bei den Türken ist jetzt der Titel Emir meistens nur die Bezeichnung eines… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • emir — emir; emir·ate; …   English syllables

  • emir — m. émir …   Diccionari Personau e Evolutiu


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