eagle


eagle
/ee"geuhl/, n., v., eagled, eagling.
n.
1. any of several large, soaring birds of prey belonging to the hawk family Accipitridae, noted for their size, strength, and powers of flight and vision: formerly widespread in North America, eagles are mostly confined to Alaska and a few isolated populations. Cf. bald eagle, golden eagle.
2. a figure or representation of an eagle, much used as an emblem: the Roman eagle.
3. a standard, seal, or the like bearing such a figure.
4. one of a pair of silver insignia in the shape of eagles with outstretched wings worn by a colonel in the U.S. Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and by a captain in the U.S. Navy.
5. (cap.) a gold coin of the U.S., traded for investment, available in denominations of 5, 10, 25, and 50 dollars containing 1/10 to 1 troy ounce of gold, having on its reverse a picture of an eagle: first issued in 1986.
6. a former gold coin of the U.S., issued until 1933, equal to 10 dollars, showing an eagle on its reverse.
7. Golf. a score of two below par for any single hole.
8. (cap.) Astron. the constellation Aquila.
9. Cards.
a. a representation in green of an eagle, used on playing cards to designate a suit in the pack additional to the four standard suits.
b. a card of a suit so designated.
c. eagles, the suit itself.
v.t.
10. Golf. to make an eagle on (a hole).
[1350-1400; ME egle < AF, OF egle, aigle < L aquila, n. use of fem. of aquilus dark-colored]

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I
Any of many large, heavy-beaked, big-footed birds of prey belonging to the family Accipitridae, found worldwide.

Eagles are generally larger and more powerful than hawks and may resemble a vulture in build and flight characteristics, but they have a fully feathered (often crested) head and strong feet equipped with great curved talons. Most species subsist mainly on live prey, which they generally capture on the ground. Eagles have been a symbol of war and imperial power since Babylonian times. They mate for life. They nest in inaccessible places and use the same nest each year. Species vary from 24 in. to 3.3 ft (60 cm–1 m) long. The sea eagles include the bald eagle. See also golden eagle.

White-bellied sea eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) catching a fish

© Mary Plage/Bruce Coleman Ltd.
II
(as used in expressions)

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bird
  any of many large, heavy-beaked, big-footed birds of prey belonging to the family Accipitridae (order Falconiformes (falconiform)). In general, an eagle is any bird of prey more powerful than a buteo. An eagle may resemble a vulture in build and flight characteristics but has a fully feathered (often crested) head and strong feet equipped with great curved talons. A further difference is in foraging habits: eagles subsist mainly on live prey. They are too ponderous for effective aerial pursuit but try to surprise and overwhelm their prey on the ground. Like owls, many decapitate their kills. Because of their strength, eagles have been a symbol of war and imperial power since Babylonian times. Their likeness is found on Greek and Roman ruins, coins, and medals.

      Eagles are monogamous. They mate for life and use the same nest each year. They tend to nest in inaccessible places, incubating a small clutch of eggs for six to eight weeks. The young mature slowly, reaching adult plumage in the third or fourth year.

  The harpy eagles, named after the foul, malign creatures (part woman and part bird) of Greek mythology, are large, powerful, crested eagles of the tropical forest (tropical rainforest)s of South America and the South Pacific. They nest in the tops of the tallest trees and hunt macaws, monkeys, and sloths. The great harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja), which ranges from southern Mexico to Brazil, is about 1 metre (3.3 feet) long and bears a crest of dark feathers on its head. Its body is black above and white below except for a black chest band. It is becoming increasingly rare, particularly in Mexico and Central America. The New Guinea harpy eagle (Harpyopsis novaeguineae) is about 75 cm (30 inches) long. It is gray-brown and has a long tail and a short but full crest. Very similar in appearance and habits is the Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi). It is about 90 cm (35 inches) long, brown above and white below, with a crest of long, narrow feathers. It is an endangered species.

      The harrier eagles, six species of Circaetus (subfamily Circaetinae, serpent eagles), of Europe, Asia, and Africa, are about 60 cm (24 inches) long and have short unfeathered legs. They nest in the tops of trees and hunt snakes.

      The hawk eagles (genera Spizastur, Spizaetus, Lophaetus, and Hieraaetus, subfamily Accipitrinae) are lightly built eagles that have fully feathered legs and large beaks and feet. They hunt all kinds of small animals. Members of the Spizaetus species (e.g., the ornate hawk eagle [S. ornatus] of tropical America) have short wide wings, long rounded tails, and ornamented heads. Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus), of Mediterranean areas and parts of southern Asia, is about 60 cm (24 inches) long, is dark above and light below, has a broad tailband, and usually shows a white patch on the back.

 The martial eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus) of Africa is heavily built, brown above with black throat and black-spotted white underparts. It has a short, barred tail and bright yellow eyes. It is large and strong enough to kill jackals and small antelopes, but its usual food is chickenlike birds and hyraxes.

  The sea eagles (sometimes called fish, or fishing, eagles, Haliaeetus species) are very large eagles that live along rivers, big lakes, and tidewater throughout the world except South America. Some reach 1 metre (3.3 feet) long, with a wingspan nearly twice that. All have exceptionally large high-arched beaks and bare lower legs. The undersurfaces of the toes are roughened for grasping slippery prey. These birds eat much carrion but sometimes kill. They snatch fish from the water surface and often rob their chief competitor, the osprey. The largest sea eagle is Steller's sea eagle (H. pelagicus), of Korea, Japan, and Russia's Far East (particularly the Kamchatka Peninsula). This bird has a wingspan surpassing 2 metres (6.6 feet) and can weigh up to 9 kg (20 pounds). The only sea eagle of North America is the bald eagle (H. leucocephalus), which is found across Canada and the United States and in northern Mexico. The white-bellied sea eagle (H. leucogaster), frequently seen on the coasts of Australia, ranges from New Guinea and Indonesia through Southeast Asia to India and China. A well-known African species is the African fish eagle (H. vocifer), found along lakes, rivers, and coastlines from south of the Sahara to the Cape of Good Hope.

      White-tailed sea eagles (H. albicilla), native to Europe, southwestern Greenland, the Middle East, Russia (including Siberia), and the coastlands of China, had disappeared from the British Isles by 1918 and from most of southern Europe by the 1950s; however, they began to recolonize Scotland by way of Norway in the 1950s and '60s. By the early 21st century, more than 5,000 breeding pairs could be found across northern Europe as a result of systematic reintroduction programs begun in the 1980s. At present, Scottish populations number more than 150 birds, and a handful of sea eagles have been reintroduced to Ireland.

      Asian species include the gray-headed, or greater, fishing eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and the lesser fishing eagle (I. naga).

      The serpent eagles, or snake eagles, Spilornis (six species, subfamily Circaetinae), eat mostly snakes, including large poisonous ones. They occur in Asia. Other birds called serpent eagles, notably the long-tailed members of the genera Dryotriorchis (e.g., African serpent eagle) and Eutriorchis (e.g., the endangered Madagascar serpent eagle), occur in Africa.

      Verreaux's eagle (Aquila verreauxi) is an uncommon bird of eastern and southern Africa. It is black with white rump and wing patches. It reaches about 80 cm (31 inches) in length, and it subsists mainly on hyraxes. See bateleur; golden eagle.

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Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:
/ (U.S. gold coin)


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