dwarfism


dwarfism
/dwawr"fiz euhm/, n. Med.
the condition of being a dwarf or dwarfed.
[1860-65; DWARF + -ISM]

* * *

Growth retardation resulting in abnormally short adult stature.

It is caused by a variety of hereditary and metabolic disorders. Pituitary dwarfism is caused by insufficient growth hormone. Hereditary dwarfisms include achondroplasia, with normal trunk size but short limbs and a large head; hypochondroplasia, similar except for normal head size; and diastrophic dwarfism, with progressive, crippling skeletal deformities. Intelligence is normal in these forms of dwarfism. Some kinds include mental retardation. Dwarfism may also result from inadequate nutrition in early life (see rickets).

* * *

▪ medical disorder
      condition of growth retardation resulting in abnormally short adult stature and caused by a variety of hereditary and metabolic disorders. Traditionally, the term “dwarf” was used to describe individuals with disproportions of body and limb, while “midget” referred to those of reduced stature but normal proportions; today neither word is used, and “little people” has become the preferred term for persons with extreme growth retardation.

      Among the common forms of hereditary dwarfism are achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and diastrophic dwarfism. In achondroplasia, the trunk is of normal size, but, because of a disturbance of the bone-producing cells of the growth plates (epiphyses) of the long bones, the limbs are extremely short; the head tends to be unusually large. Intelligence and life span are normal. Hypochondroplasia resembles achondroplasia except that the head is of normal size. Diastrophic dwarfism is characterized by progressive, crippling skeletal deformities. There is a high risk of death from respiratory failure during early infancy; thereafter the prospect of a normal life span is good. Intelligence is unimpaired in diastrophic dwarfism.

      Pituitary dwarfism, caused by a deficiency of pituitary growth hormone, is the chief endocrine form of dwarfism and may be hereditary; tumours, infections, or infarction (tissue death) of the pituitary can also induce dwarfism. In many cases, other endocrine and sexual functions remain normal. However, in panhypopituitarism all pituitary hormones are deficient, and sexual development is impaired.

      In several hormonal disorders and hereditary conditions dwarfism is associated with subnormal intelligence. Inadequate production of thyroid hormone during gestation and early infancy results in a condition known as cretinism, which is characterized by growth retardation and severe mental retardation. Several of the mucopolysaccharidoses (disorders of mucopolysaccharide metabolism) are characterized by dwarfism, often with mental retardation. Some infants having hereditary forms of dwarfism are stillborn or die soon after birth because of serious metabolic disorders.

      Dwarfism may also result from inadequate nutrition during crucial phases of growth and development. A leading nutritional cause of dwarfism is vitamin-D-resistant rickets during childhood; intelligence is not affected by this condition.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • dwarfism — dwarfism. См. нанизм. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • dwarfism — ► NOUN ▪ unusually low stature or small size …   English terms dictionary

  • Dwarfism — This article is about the medical condition. For the legendary creature, see Dwarf (Germanic mythology). For other uses, see Dwarf (disambiguation). Dwarfism Classification and external resources Lavinia Warren …   Wikipedia

  • Dwarfism — Abnormally short stature, which may be due to a variety of causes. Some forms are hereditary. See also {{}}achondroplasia; dwarfism, pituitary. * * * A condition or a group of conditions in which the standing height of the person is below the 3rd …   Medical dictionary

  • dwarfism — n. abnormally short stature from any cause. The most common type of dwarf is the achondroplastic dwarf (see achondroplasia). Pituitary dwarfs have a deficiency of growth hormone due to a defect in the pituitary gland; they are well proportioned… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • dwarfism — noun Date: 1865 the condition of stunted growth …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • dwarfism — noun The condition of being a dwarf. Studies of disproportionate dwarfisms in animals have revealed the importance of core proteins an sulfation in the development of cartilage …   Wiktionary

  • dwarfism — dwarf|ism [ dwɔrf,ızəm ] noun uncount MEDICAL the condition of being much smaller than an average person and having arms and legs that are short compared to the body …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • dwarfism — n. condition of being considerably smaller than normal (about a person, animal, etc.) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • dwarfism — noun (in medical or technical contexts) unusually small stature or size …   English new terms dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.